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Bees

Article contains terms, results, and products that are targeted to home owners. Article contains terms, results, and products that are targeted to turf professionals. Article contains terms, results, and products that are targeted to turf students.
Stephen Bambara
Feb 22, 2001

BEES IN TURF

Prepared by: S. Bambara & R. Brandenburg, Extension Entomologists

CAUTION:  This information was developed for North Carolina and may not apply to other areas.

BEES IN TURF
Andrenid beeThere are many common species of solitary bees that nest in individual holes in the ground. They are all good pollinators. These bees range in size form 1/2 to 3/4 inches and may be a variety of colors such as blue, green, copper or metallic reddish-brown. They may belong to one of several groups of bees such as the membrane bees, digger bees, sweat bees, mason bees and leafcutter bees (Colletidae, Halictidae, Andrenidae, Anthophoridae, Megachilidae) and occur across the state. During the evening hours, females excavate nesting burrows that reach six or more inches in depth. Some of these bees line the burrow with a water-proofing secretion for protection from moisture. Small mounds of excavated soil may appear around each nest opening. When bees are numerous, many holes may be in closed proximity, creating a "citylike" aggregation. Each hole belongs to an individual female. During the day, the active females collect pollen and nectar to carry back to the nest to form a "ball" 1/8 to 14 inch in diameter that is placed within a "cell" excavated in the side of the burrow. A single egg is laid upon the pollen ball in March, April or early May. After hatching, the larva feeds on pollen and develops within the cell into a new generation of bees. The new generation emerges the following year in March or April. At this time, mating takes place and bee activity begins to pick up as the nesting cycle resumes. Though adult bees feed on nectar, none store honey as such. Solitary, ground nesting bees play a vital role in ecological systems, especially in pollination of crops and wild plants. Solitary bees are valuable pollinators and should not be destroyed unless there is some compelling reason.

drawing of colletid bee and nest structure

mounds in lawnGround-nesting bees generally prefer nesting in areas with morning sun exposure and well-drained soils containing little organic matter. Burrows are excavated in areas of bare ground or sparse vegetation. These bees usually avoid damp soils. Damage to lawns and turf is usually minimal and control is often sought because the bees are perceived as a danger or annoyance. Solitary bees are not "programmed" to sting people and there is no mass attack as might be found with social hymenoptera such as honey bees or yellowjackets. A person might be stung if handling one roughly or if one becomes trapped in clothing. Mowing and other outdoor activities can be continued with little problem. However, with very large aggregations, the faint-of-heart may prefer to avoid the area for about 4 weeks while nesting is taking place.
 
 

PEST MANAGEMENT

Cultural control methods include heavy watering or irrigation with a lawn sprinkler during the nest-building period to discourage nesting. Tilling of soil to destroy tunnels may help a little, but establishment of dense turf is probably the best discouragement to further nesting. Applications of heavy organic matter could be included as a soil amendment, if practical, when tilling the soil. If the soil or location is not conducive to a healthy lawn, using ground covers or heavy mulches may be an alternative solution. Mulches may be used on bare patches caused by heavy traffic where grass will not grow.
 
 

CHEMICAL TREATMENT

If chemical treatment is desired, recommendations for insecticides approved for control of these insects in home lawns can be found under Bees and Wasps in INSECT CONTROL IN HOME LAWNS in the NC Agricultural Chemicals Manual. Recommendations for insecticides approved for use on sod farms, golf courses or other commercial sites can be found in COMMERCIAL TURF INSECT CONTROL in the NC Agricultural Chemicals Manual.

For additional information on insect control and pesticide use, contact your county Cooperative Extension Center .
 

Recommendations for the use of any chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in this publication does not imply endorsement by the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. Individuals who use chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current regulations and conforms to the product label. Be sure to obtain current information about usage and examine a current product label before applying any chemical. For assistance, contact an agent of the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service in your county.

Other Resources

© 2001 NC Cooperative Extension Service
Prepared by: S. Bambara, R. Brandenburg & J. Baker, Extension Entomologists
ENT/ort-100, March 2002 (Revised), lightly revised 2009.
Last reviewed by the webperson January, 2011.
KEYWORDS FOUND IN THIS ARTICLE:
bees
insect control
larva
mulch
ground nesting bee
insecticide
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