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Annual Ryegrass

Description

Annual ryegrass, also referred to as Italian ryegrass, is a bunch-type grass that can be used as a nurse crop for quick cover or for winter overseeding of bermudagrass on low maintenance athletic fields or golf courses. It does not possess the quality of perennial ryegrass and is not recommended for sites where high quality turf is desired. However, it is very inexpensive and can be used on low profile fields such as school, park or recreation sites where winter color is desirable. Its seedhead can be confused with that of quackgrass. Annual ryegrass does not have rhizomes, whereas quackgrass does. Annual ryegrass can be easily confused with tall fescue. However, tall fescue has rough leaf blade margins on the lower 1/3 - 1/2 of the leaf whereas annual ryegrass has smooth ones. Tall fescue has non-clasping auricles, whereas annual ryegrass has clasping auricles. The backside of the tall fescue leaf blade is less glossy than that of annual ryegrass.

Cultural Control

Annual ryegrass is a common weed problem in turfgrasses on roadsides in the southeastern United States. Maintaining a dense, vigorous turf is the first step in effective weed control. Cultural and management practices that enhance turfgrass growth generally reduce weed competition and encroachment. First, select adapted turfgrass cultivars for your area and then properly fertilize, mow, and water to encourage dense growth.

Chemical Control

Herbicide and Formulation
Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft
Amount of Formulation per Acre
Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

Preemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

benefin, MOA 3 (Balan 2.5 G) 2.5 G

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

2.75 lb

Amount of Formulation per Acre

120 lb

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

3

Precaution and Remarks

Safe to apply to all established turfgrass except bentgrass. Do not apply in the spring to lawns seeded the previous fall or to golf course greens. Do not use on newly sprigged turfgrasses.

Preemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

benefin + trifluralin, MOA 3 + 3 (Team 2 G) 2 G (Team Pro 0.86%) 0.86 G

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

3.5 lb 8 lb

Amount of Formulation per Acre

150 lb 349 lb

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

3

Precaution and Remarks

Use on lawns and golf course fairways of bahiagrass, bentgrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, fescue, perennial ryegrass, St. Augustinegrass, and zoysiagrass.

Preemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

bensulide, MOA 8 (Bensumec 4 LF or Betasan 4.8-E) 4 EC (Pre-San) 12.5 G (Pre-San) 7 G

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

Amount of Formulation per Acre

varies because several concentrations available

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

10

Precaution and Remarks

May be applied to all established turfgrass and dichondra, residential lawns, and also golf course greens and tees. Limit 2 applications per year to greens and tees. Do not use on newly sprigged turfgrasses. Not effective for goosegrass control.

Preemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

bensulide + oxadiazon, MOA 8 + 14 (Goosegrass/Crabgrass Control) 6.56 G

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

2.6 lb

Amount of Formulation per Acre

116 lb

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

6 + 1.5

Precaution and Remarks

Controls crabgrass and goosegrass. Use on established bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, tall fescue, bentgrass, perennial bluegrass, or perennial ryegrass fairways and tees. Use also on bermudagrass and bentgrass greens.

Preemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

dithiopyr, MOA 4 (Dimension 2 EW) 2 EW (Dithiopyr 2 L) 2 L (Dimension Ultra WSP, Dynamo 40 WSP or Dithiopyr 40 WSP) 40 WP

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.75 fl oz 0.46 oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1 qt 20 oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.5

Precaution and Remarks

May be applied to most all cool-season and warm-season turfgrasses except colonial bentgrass. See label for injury precautions regarding certain varieties. Also controls pre-tillered crabgrass. Split applications recommended in southern and coastal regions of the state (0.25 pound a.i. at 8 week intervals). Timely irrigation or rainfall is critical for activation.

Preemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

indaziflam, MOA 21 (Specticle 20 WSP) 20 WSP

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.057 to 0.115 oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2.5 to 5 oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.03125 to 0.0625

Precaution and Remarks

Use only on established turf (1 year after seeding) such as bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, seashore paspalum, and bahiagrass. Labeled for commercial and residential lawns, golf courses (roughs, tees, fairways), sod farms, athletic fields, parks and cemeteries. Use a minimum of 2.5 ounces per acre for crabgrass, annual bluegrass and broadleaf weed control and a minimum of 3.75 ounces per acre for goosegrass, annual sedge and kyllinga species control. Apply up to 2.5 ounces per acre on centipedegrass and St. Augustinegrass due to tolerance concerns. For all other tolerant turfgrasses, do not exceed 5 ounces per acre in a single application or 7.1 ounces per acre within a calendar year. There is an 8 month overseeding restriction following a 2.5 ounces per acre application. Can sprig 2 months following application, or if sprigged first, wait 4 months before spraying. Can sod 4 months following application, or if sodded first wait 2 months after rooting before spraying.

Preemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

(Specticle Flo) 0.622 F

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.69 to 0.23 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

3 to 10 fl oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.01458 to 0.0486

Precaution and Remarks

Use up to 6 fluid ounces per acre on common bermudagrass, centipedegrass and St. Augustinegrass and 10 fluid ounces per acre on hybrid bermudagrass, zoysiagrass and bahiagrass established 16 months in areas such as golf course roughs and fairways, residential and commercial turf, sod farms, athletic fields, parks and cemeteries. 10 fluid ounces per acre needed for annual sedge and kyllinga species control. Don’t exceed 18.5 fluid ounces per acre per year. Do not vertical mow 1 month before or after application. Irrigate within 2 days of treatment for maximum benefit. Check label for split or multiple application rates and timings. Delay overseeding 10 months if 4.5 to 6 fluid ounces used and 12 months if 6 to 9 fluid ounces used. For sod production, only apply to bermudagrass, zoysiagrass or bahiagrass. Apply if 80% ribbon coverage and before 4 months prior to harvest. Wait 6 month after treatment if sodding bare ground. Apply to actively growing sod established for 3 months.

Preemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

metolachlor, MOA 15 (Pennant Magnum ) 7.62 EC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.96 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2.6 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

2.48

Precaution and Remarks

Apply to established bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, bahiagrass, and zoysiagrass. Can apply up to 4.2 pint per acre per year to same area used for commercial sod production.

Preemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

napropamide, MOA 15 (Devrinol) 50 DF (Devrinol) 2 G

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

1.5 to 2.2 oz 2.3 to 3.4 lb

Amount of Formulation per Acre

4 to 6 lb 100 to 150 lb

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

2 to 3

Precaution and Remarks

Use in established bahiagrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, and tall fescue.

Preemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

oryzalin, MOA 3 (Oryzalin 4 Pro or Surflan A.S.) 4 AS

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

1.5 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2 qt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

2

Precaution and Remarks

Use on established bahiagrass, centipedegrass, tall fescue, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass, and bermudagrass except greens and tees. A total of 3 quart per acre may be used if application is split by applying 1.5 quart per acre followed by 1.5 quart per acre 8 to 10 weeks later. Follow label directions. Do not apply in the spring or summer to tall fescue reseeded the previous fall.

Preemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

(Harrier WDG) 85 WDG

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.64 to 0.88 oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1.75 to 2.4 lb

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

1.4875 to 2.04

Precaution and Remarks

Observe same turf tolerances and tall fescue precautions as above. Successful preemergence activity should occur if activated by 0.5 inch of water within 21 days of application. Apply 2.4 pounds per acre as a single application or 1.75 pounds per acre in sequential applications spaced 12 weeks apart.

Preemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

oxadiazon, MOA 14 (Oxadiazon 2 G) 2 G (Ronstar G or Regal Ronstar A.C.) 2 G

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

2.3 to 4.6 lb 2.3 to 3.4 lb

Amount of Formulation per Acre

100 to 200 lb 100 to 150 lb

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

2 to 4 2 to 3

Precaution and Remarks

Use in established perennial bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, bentgrass, bermudagrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass, and St. Augustinegrass. Red fescue is not tolerant. Do not apply to dichondra, centipedegrass, putting greens or tees, or to newly seeded areas. Do not apply to bentgrass mowed at less than 3/8 in. Do not apply to wet turf. Rainfall or irrigation after application will improve weed control activity. May be applied when sprigging bermudagrass and zoysiagrass. Do not apply to home lawns.

Preemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

(Oxadiazon 50 WSB or Ronstar 50 WSB) 50 WP

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

1.5 to 2.2 oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

4 to 6 lb

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

2 to 3

Precaution and Remarks

Use in dormant, established bermudagrass, St. Augustinegrass, and zoysiagrass in fairways and parks. Should be applied at least 2 to 3 weeks before greenup of turf. May be applied when sprigging bermudagrass and zoysiagrass. Do not use on home lawns.

Preemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

(Ronstar Flo, Oxadiazon SC or Starfighter L) 3.17 SC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

1.85 to 2.8 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2.52 to 3.81 qt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

2 to 3

Precaution and Remarks

Use in dormant, established bermudagrass, St. Augustinegrass, and zoysiagrass in fairways and parks. May apply 2 lb a.i. per acre when sprigging bermudagrass. Make application at least 2 to 3 weeks before greenup of turf. Do not use on home lawns.

Preemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

oxadiazon + benefin, MOA 14 + 3 (Regalstar) 1.5 G

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

4.5 lb

Amount of Formulation per Acre

200 lb

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

2 + 1

Precaution and Remarks

Use on turf and golf courses of bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass, bentgrass (fairways only), bluegrass, ryegrass, and tall fescue. Do not use on home lawns. Product contains 38% N. Apply to dry foliage.

Preemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

oxadiazon + prodiamine, MOA 14 + 3 (Regalstar II) 1.2 G

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

4.5 lb

Amount of Formulation per Acre

200 lb

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

2 + 0.4

Precaution and Remarks

Use on turf, golf courses (excluding putting greens) of established bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, St. Augustinegrass, ryegrass, centipedegrass, bentgrass, bluegrass, and tall fescue. Product contains 38% N. Apply to dry foliage.

Preemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

pendimethalin, MOA 3 (Pendulum 2 G) (Signature 0.86 G) (Signature 0.75 G)

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

1.72 to 3.44 lb 2.67 to 5.34 lb 3.1 to 6.15 lb

Amount of Formulation per Acre

75 to 150 lb 116 to 232 lb 135 to 268 lb

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

1,5 to 3 1 to 2 1 to 2

Precaution and Remarks

Use on established bahiagrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, fine fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, and zoysiagrass. Do not use on winter-overseeded grasses.

Preemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

pendimethalin, MOA 3 (Pendulum AquaCap) 3.8 CS

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

1.15 to 2.3 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

3.1 to 6.3 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

1.5 to 3

Precaution and Remarks

Use on noncropland as well as established nonresidential and residential turf areas mowed at least 4 times consisting of bahiagrass, bermudagrass, buffalograss, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, bentgrass, established Poa annua (0.5 inch height or taller), fine fescue, and tall fescue. Do not use on bentgrass or Poa annua greens and tees. If lower rate is applied initially, repeat in 6-8 weeks for extended control. Do not reseed or overseed into treated turfgrass for 3 months, or sprig turfgrass for 5 months following application. Do not exceed 4.2 pint per acre on residential and sod farm turfgrass.

Preemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

pendimethalin + dimethemamid, MOA 3 + 15 (Freehand) 1.75 G

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

2.3 to 4.6 lb

Amount of Formulation per Acre

100 to 200

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

1.75 to 3.5

Precaution and Remarks

Use on residential, commercial, recreational, sod farm and golf course turf, excluding greens. Tolerant turf species include bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, seashore paspalum and zoysiagrass. For extended control, make sequential applications within 5 to 8 weeks not to exceed 400 lb per acre. Irrigate within 24 hr of application for optimum control. Following application, wait 3 months to overseed, reseed or sprig. If sprigged first, wait 2 months for root establishment to treat. On new sod, mow at least twice before application. On new seedlings, mow at least 4 times before application. Wait 2 weeks after aerification or verticutting before applying.

Preemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

prodiamine, MOA 3 (Barricade 65 WG) 65 WG (Barricade 4 FL) 4 FL (Prodiamine 65 WDG, ProClipse 65 WDG or RegalKade 65 WDG) 65 WG

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.28 to 0.4 oz 0.23 to 1.1 fl oz 0.185 to 0.83 oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

0.75 to 1.5 lb 0.625 to 3 pt 0.5 to 2.3 lb

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.5 to 1 0.3125 to 1.5 0.325 to 1.5

Precaution and Remarks

May be used on established bahiagrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysia, tall fescue, creeping red fescue, perennial bluegrass and ryegrass, and creeping bentgrass. Do not apply to greens. May apply when sprigging or plugging bermudagrass, up to 0.8 pound product per acre.

Preemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

(RegalKade) 0.5 G

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

1.5 to 6.9 lb

Amount of Formulation per Acre

64 to 300 lb

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.32 to 1.5

Precaution and Remarks

See precautions for Barricade except may be used on established turf only. Do not apply more than 150 pounds per acre per application. Do not make more than two applications per calendar year. Wait at least 60 days after initial application before making a second application. Prodiamine is coated on a 32-3-12 dry fertilizer carrier.

Preemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

siduron, MOA 7 (Tupersan) 50 WP

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

7.3 oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

20 lb

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

10

Precaution and Remarks

Use only on bluegrass, fescue, perennial ryegrass, and certain bentgrasses (check label). Can be used at the rate of 8 lb of formulation when seeding bentgrass, bluegrass, fescue, and ryegrass. Can also be used in newly sprigged or established zoysia. Do not use on bermudagrass, carpetgrass, or centipedegrass.

Preemergence and Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

mesotrione, MOA 27 (Tenacity) 4 SC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.092 to 0.183 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

4 to 8 fl oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.125 to 0.25

Precaution and Remarks

Use on residential turf, golf courses (not greens) and sod farms for pre- and postemergence weed control. Tolerant turfgrasses include St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass, tall fescue, fine fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, and perennial ryegrass. Add a nonionic surfactant and repeat application after 2 to 3 weeks for improved postemergence control. Tank mix with Barricade 65 WG for extended preemergence grassy weed control. Can be applied at seeding to all tolerant grasses except fine fescue. After turf germination, wait 4 weeks or until turf has been mowed twice before making a postemergence application. Also controls henbit, chickweed, dandelion, white clover, Florida betony, Florida pusley, ground ivy, oxalis, wild violet, creeping bentgrass, and yellow nutsedge.

Preemergence and Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

sulfentrazone + prodiamine, MOA 14 + 3 (Echelon 4 SC) 4 SC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.184 to 0.826 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

0.5 to 2.25 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.25 to 1.125

Precaution and Remarks

For use in residential and institutional lawns, athletic fields, sod farms, golf course fairways and roughs, roadsides, utility right-of-ways, railways, and industrial areas. Apply to turf following a second mowing if a good root system has been established. Apply up to 12 fluid ounces per acre to bentgrass at 0.5 inches or higher, fine fescue, and perennial ryegrass. Apply 18 to 24 fluid ounces per acre to perennial bluegrass, tall fescue, and all warm season grasses except St. Augustinegrass (do not apply) and bermudagrass (apply 18 to 36 fluid ounces per acre). For sod production, apply 6 months after establishment, and do not harvest within 3 months. Do not apply with adjuvants or surfactants. Echelon should not be applied to cool-season turf with N-containing fertilizers unless some short-term discoloration is tolerable.

Postemergence Control or Suppression of Summer Weeds Such as Crabgrass Species

Herbicide and Formulation

thiencarbazone + foramsulfuron + halosulfuron, MOA 14 + 2 + 2 (Tribute Total) 60.5 WG

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.0735 oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

3.2 oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.121

Precaution and Remarks

Apply to well-established residential and commercial bermudagrass and zoysiagrass (Emerald, Meyer, Zeon) lawns, golf courses (excluding greens), athletic fields, sod farms, roadsides, parks, cemeteries and recreational areas. Do not exceed 3.2 ounces per acre per application or 6.4 ounces per acre yearly. Use 0.25 to 0.5% by volume nonionic surfactant or 0.5 to 1% by volume methylated seed oil. After application, wait 12 weeks to overseed ryegrass or bermudagrass. Wait 1 month after bermudagrass seedling emergence and 2 weeks after sprigging or sodding bermudagrass before treating. Temporary stunting and yellowing may last up to 2 weeks but turf will recover. Crabgrass and goosegrass are controlled up to 2 tiller stage.

Presentations

Publications

Species Data

Seedhead/Flower

a spike, with spikelets along the main stem

p1060805 annual
p1060805 annual
p1060805 annual
p1060815 annual
p1060815 annual
p1060815 annual
p1060816 annual
p1060816 annual
p1060816 annual
seedhead
seedhead
seedhead
seedhead3
seedhead3
seedhead3
Vernation type

leaves rolled in the bud

dscn0997
dscn0997
dscn0997
vernation
vernation
vernation
Ligule Type

membranous; blunt, 0.04 - 0.08 inches (1 - 2 mm) long

ligule
ligule
ligule
Growth Season/Life Cycle

cool season turf or winter annual weed

Auricle type

pointed or blunt or claw-like, clasping

annualryegrass dsc 0865
annualryegrass dsc 0865
annualryegrass dsc 0865
annualryegrass dsc 0867
annualryegrass dsc 0867
annualryegrass dsc 0867
annualryegrass dsc 0870
annualryegrass dsc 0870
annualryegrass dsc 0870
annualryegrass dsc 1046
annualryegrass dsc 1046
annualryegrass dsc 1046
auricles2
auricles2
auricles2
ligule
ligule
ligule
Leaf blade tip shape

sharp-pointed; bright green, upper surface dull, deeply ridged, lower surface smooth, glossy and slightly creased, edges smooth

dscn0973
dscn0973
dscn0973
Leaf blade width

0.1 - 0.28 inches (3 - 7 mm) wide

leaf attach
leaf attach
leaf attach
Stolon Presence

absent

Rhizome Presence

absent

Collar Type

continuous; indistinct, not hairy

Sheath Margin

split with overlapping margins

Sheath Type

round; pinkish at base