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Bermudagrass

Description

Bermudagrass is a medium- to fine-textured warm-season turfgrass that spreads by rhizomes and stolons. It has excellent heat, drought, and salt tolerance but does not do well in shade. Bermudagrass is the most widely used species on athletic fields and golf course fairways/tee boxes due to its high wear tolerance and rapid recovery. It can also be a very invasive and hard to control weed in some turf settings. Bermudagrass can be confused with nimblewill. However, nimblewill has a membranous ligule, which can be distinguished from the hairy ligule of bermudagrass. Bermudagrass is also often confused with zoysiagrass, but zoysiagrass has hairs standing upright on the leaf blade, whereas bermudagrass does not. Zoysiagrass is also stiff to the touch and offers more resistance to your hand than bermudagrass. Zoysiagrass leaf vernation is rolled whereas bermudagrass leaf vernation is folded. There are many different hybrids of bermudagrass that range from fine to coarse in leaf texture. As a weed, bermudagrass is sometimes referred to as wiregrass.

Cultural Control

Most turfgrasses are difficult to control within another turfgrass. Therefore, turf managers should select clean seed or vegetative sources for establishment, use an adapted turfgrass species and cultivar for their location, and use proper mowing and fertilization techniques to maintain a dense, actively growing, desired turf. Digging or removal with hand or mechanical equipment, for example a sod cutter, is one way to control undesired perennial turfgrasses. You may spot treat an infested area with an appropriate non-selective herbicide, realizing it will also kill the desired turfgrass.

Chemical Control

Herbicide and Formulation
Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft
Amount of Formulation per Acre
Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

topramezone, MOA 27 (Pylex) 2.8 L

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.023 to 0.034 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1 to 1.5 fl oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.021875 to 0.0328125

Precaution and Remarks

Labeled for spot treatment use in residential and athletic field turf. Can be broadcast in nonresidential turf sites including sod farms, golf courses (excluding greens and collars), parks, roadsides, cemeteries, and commercial properties. Tolerant turf species include Kentucky bluegrass, tall and fine fescue, perennial ryegrass, and centipedegrass at seeding and then anytime beyond 28 days after seeding. Add crop oil concentrate or methylated seed oil for enhanced control at 0.5 to 1% by volume. Don’t apply greater than 2 fl ounces per acre per application or 4 fluid ounces per acre per year. Bleaching intensity of susceptible weeds reduced and broadleaf weed spectrum increased if tankmixed with Drive XLR8, Onetime or Turflon Ester Ultra. For suppression of above-listed weeds, add Turflon Ester Ultra at 1 pound ae per acre and make either 2 or 3 applications at 3 to 4 week intervals depending on Pylex rate. Creeping bentgrass is marginally tolerant to Pylex at 0.25 fluid ounces per acre. Test on a small area before large-scale use. Sequential applications may be required to achieve desired level of weed control.

Suppression/Control

Herbicide and Formulation

fenoxaprop, MOA 1 (Acclaim Extra) 0.57 EC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.46 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1.25 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.089

Precaution and Remarks

Use on Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, fine and tall fescue, and zoysiagrass. Apply June 1, July 1, Aug. 1, Sept. 1, repeat for 2 years. Can be tankmixed with 1 pt per acre Turflon Ester following the same schedule as above. Apply June 1 and Aug. 1 for 2 years if tank mixed with 1 quart per acre Turflon Ester. Zoysia may show discoloration but should recover in 10 to 14 days following tankmix applications.

Suppression/Control

Herbicide and Formulation

fluazifop, MOA 1 (Fusilade II) 2 EC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.05 to 0.14 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2 to 6 fl oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.03 to 0.09

Precaution and Remarks

Use on tall fescue or zoysia. For fescue, apply 5 to 6 ounces per acre during warm weather in early spring when bermudagrass is breaking dormancy; repeat in fall when bermudagrass is preparing for dormancy. For zoysia, apply 4 ounces per acre on June 1, Aug. 1; repeat for 2 years. Can tank-mix with 1 quart per acre Turflon Ester following schedule above. Zoysia or tall fescue may show slight discoloration but should recover in 10 to 14 days. Add a nonionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v. Apply in a minimum of 30 gallons of water per acre.

Suppression/Control

Herbicide and Formulation

siduron, MOA 7 (Tupersan) 50 WP

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.5 to 1 lb

Amount of Formulation per Acre

21.78 to 43.56 lb

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

10.88 to 21.78

Precaution and Remarks

Apply as 8- to 12-inch band treatment with a single nozzle sprayer along putting green perimeter to suppress bermudagrass stolon encroachment. Initiate in March or April, and continue subsequent applications at 4- to 5-week intervals.

Suppression/Control

Herbicide and Formulation

triclopyr, MOA 4 (Turflon Ester Ultra) 4 lb/gal

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.73 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1 qt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

1.0

Precaution and Remarks

Use on perennial bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue or ornamental turf including sod farms and golf courses. Do not apply to zoysia unless injury can be tolerated. Apply June 1, July 1, Aug. 1, Sept. 1, repeat for 2 years. Can be tank-mixed with Acclaim Extra or Fusilade II at rates, timings listed above. New low-odor formulation uses methylated seed oil solvents instead of petroleum distillates.

Postemergence Control Bermudagrass

Herbicide and Formulation

clethodim, MOA 1 (Envoy Plus) 0.97 EC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.4 to 0.8 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

17 to 34 fl oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.125 to 0.25

Precaution and Remarks

For use on sod farms only. Do not apply to centipedegrass being grown for seed. Do not apply until 3 weeks after full greenup of centipedegrass in spring. Do not mow for 1 week before and after application. The addition of a nonionic surfactant at 0.25 % solution (1 pt per 50 gal water) or a crop oil concentrate at 1% solution (2 qt per 50 gal water) is necessary for control. A repeat application usually 3 to 4 weeks after the first application will be required for bermudagrass control. Use higher rates for more established bermudagrass. Do not apply more than 68 ounces of Envoy per acre per year. Some discoloration of centipedegrass will occur at higher rates.

Presentations

Publications

Species Data

Seedhead/Flower

raceme; 3-5 spikes that join at the top of a main stem.

p1060821
p1060821
p1060821
Vernation type

leaves folded in the bud

dscn1050
dscn1050
dscn1050
Ligule Type

fringe of hairs 0.04 - 0.12 inches (1 - 3 mm) long

ligule
ligule
ligule
Growth Season/Life Cycle

warm season turf or perennial weed

Auricle type

absent

ligule
ligule
ligule
Leaf blade tip shape

sharp-pointed; sparsely hairy, edges rough, leaf blade soft

dscn1037
dscn1037
dscn1037
Leaf blade width

0.06 - 0.1 inches (1.5 - 3 mm) wide

Stolon Presence

present; stout

stolon2
stolon2
stolon2
weed4
weed4
weed4
Rhizome Presence

present; stout

Collar Type

continuous; not hairy, may be hairy on edges

dscn1039
dscn1039
dscn1039
dscn1041
dscn1041
dscn1041
vernation2
vernation2
vernation2
Sheath Margin

open

dscn1047
dscn1047
dscn1047
sheath hairs
sheath hairs
sheath hairs
Sheath Type

sheath is sparsely hairy; flattened to round, loose

dscn1039
dscn1039
dscn1039