Weeds ›

Hop Clover

Description

Several species of hop clover are found in North Carolina. They are similar in appearance and they respond similarly to herbicides. These are winter annual or biennial weeds. Hop clover has a trifoliate leaf similar to white clover. Leaflets have prominent veins and the terminal leaflet of each leaf is on a short stem. Hop clover has short, hairy, reclining, slender stems, which are somewhat reddish. Flowers are bright yellow with numerous closely associated flowers borne in clusters. Each individual flower produces a single seed.

Cultural Control

Winter annual broadleaf weeds germinate in the fall or winter and grow during any warm weather, which may occur in the winter, but otherwise remain somewhat dormant during the winter. They resume growth and produce seed in the spring and die as temperatures increase in late spring and early summer. They quickly invade thin turf areas especially where there is good soil moisture. Shade may also encourage growth. Many have a prostrate growth habit and are not affected by mowing. A dense, vigorous turf is the best way to reduce the encroachment of winter annual weeds. First, select adapted turfgrass cultivars for your area and then properly fertilize, mow, and water to encourage dense growth.

Chemical Control

Herbicide and Formulation
Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft
Amount of Formulation per Acre
Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

Preemergence and Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

mesotrione, MOA 27 (Tenacity) 4 SC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.092 to 0.183 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

4 to 8 fl oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.125 to 0.25

Precaution and Remarks

Use on residential turf, golf courses (not greens) and sod farms for pre- and postemergence weed control. Tolerant turfgrasses include St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass, tall fescue, fine fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, and perennial ryegrass. Add a nonionic surfactant and repeat application after 2 to 3 weeks for improved postemergence control. Tank mix with Barricade 65 WG for extended preemergence grassy weed control. Can be applied at seeding to all tolerant grasses except fine fescue. After turf germination, wait 4 weeks or until turf has been mowed twice before making a postemergence application. Also controls henbit, chickweed, dandelion, white clover, Florida betony, Florida pusley, ground ivy, oxalis, wild violet, creeping bentgrass, and yellow nutsedge.

Preemergence and Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

sulfentrazone + prodiamine, MOA 14 + 3 (Echelon 4 SC) 4 SC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.184 to 0.826 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

0.5 to 2.25 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.25 to 1.125

Precaution and Remarks

For use in residential and institutional lawns, athletic fields, sod farms, golf course fairways and roughs, roadsides, utility right-of-ways, railways, and industrial areas. Apply to turf following a second mowing if a good root system has been established. Apply up to 12 fluid ounces per acre to bentgrass at 0.5 inches or higher, fine fescue, and perennial ryegrass. Apply 18 to 24 fluid ounces per acre to perennial bluegrass, tall fescue, and all warm season grasses except St. Augustinegrass (do not apply) and bermudagrass (apply 18 to 36 fluid ounces per acre). For sod production, apply 6 months after establishment, and do not harvest within 3 months. Do not apply with adjuvants or surfactants. Echelon should not be applied to cool-season turf with N-containing fertilizers unless some short-term discoloration is tolerable.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

quinclorac, MOA (27 + 4) (Drive 75 DF, Quinclorac 75 DF or Quinclorac SPC 75 DF) 75 DF (Drive XLR8) 1.5 SL

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.367 oz 1.45 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1 lb 2 qt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.75 0.75

Precaution and Remarks

For use in residential and nonresidential turf that is established or newly seeded, overseeded, or sprigged. Refer to label for specific varieties. Apply to common and hybrid bermudagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, annual bluegrass, buffalograss, tall fescue, annual and perennial ryegrass, creeping bentgrass, and zoysiagrass. Can also be applied to fine fescue but must be in a blend. Some discoloration of hybrid bermudagrass, creeping bentgrass or fine fescue may occur. Do not apply to bahiagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, or dichondra. Do not use on golf course greens or collars. The addition of methylated seed oil (1.5 pint per acre or 0.55 ounces per 1,000 sq ft) or a crop oil concentrate (2 pint per acre or 0.73 ounces per 1,000 square feet) is required for control. Application to weeds under stress will result in poor control. Irrigation 24 hours prior to application is recommended if drought conditions exist. Some ornamental plants are sensitive to Drive. See label for further precautions.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

mecoprop, MOA 4 (MCPP-p 4 Amine) 1.9 L (Mecomec 2.5) 1.16 L (Mecomec 4) 1.74 L

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

1 to 1.5 fl oz 1.5 to 2.25 fl oz 0.75 to 1.5 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2.7 to 4 pt 4 to 6 pt 2 to 4 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.64 to 0.95 0.58 to 0.87 0.43 to 0.87

Precaution and Remarks

Observe same precaution as for 2,4-D. May be used on bentgrass, carpetgrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, and other turf grasses.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

clopyralid, MOA 4 (Lontrel) 3 EC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.1 to 0.5 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

0.25 to 1.33 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.09 to 0.5

Precaution and Remarks

Do not apply to home lawns. May be used on bentgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, creeping, red, chewings, sheep and tall fescue, perennial ryegrass, bermudagrass, bahiagrass, buffalograss, centipedegrass, zoysiagrass, and St. Augustinegrass. Do not apply to putting greens and tees. Should be applied in a minimum of 20 gallons of water per acre. Surfactants are not necessary. Do not apply to exposed roots of certain trees and shrubs (legumes such as acacia, locust, mimosa, redbud, or mesquite) or Tilia spp. Do not use treated clippings for mulching and compost during the growing season of application.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

triclopyr + clopyralid, MOA 4 + 4 (Confront) 3 SL (2-D) 3 SL

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.37 to 0.74 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1 to 2 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.28 to 0.56 + 0.09 to 0.19

Precaution and Remarks

Do not apply to home lawns. May be used on centipedegrass, bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, tall fescue, creeping red fescue, chewing fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass. Repeat treatment may be necessary for prostrate spurge and wild violet. 2-D: maintain 0.5 inch height for warm season turf. Do not apply to bermudagrass sod farms. Wait 3 weeks to reseed. Do not use grass clippings for compost or mulch.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

MCPA ester + triclopyr ester + dicamba, MOA 4 + 4 + 4 (Cool Power) 3.6 EC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.91 to 1.29 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2.5 to 3.5 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

1.125 to 1.575

Precaution and Remarks

May be applied to home lawns by a commercial applicator. Not for use on turf grown for resale or other commercial use as sod or seed production. Use on perennial bluegrass, ryegrass, fescue species, bentgrass (excluding greens and tees), bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, and bahiagrass. Do not apply to seedling grasses until well established. Wait 3 to 4 weeks after application to seed.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

MCPA amine + triclopyr amine + dicamba, MOA 4 + 4 + 4 (Horsepower) 4.56 L

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.73 to 1.1 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2 to 3 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

1.14 to 1.71

Precaution and Remarks

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

MCPA amine + fluroxypyr ester + triclopyr amine, MOA 4+4+4 (Battleship III) 3.41 L

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.37 to 1.47 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1 to 4 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.42625 to 1.705

Precaution and Remarks

Apply by a commercial applicator to residential, industrial, and institutional lawns, sod farms, parks, cemeteries, athletic fields, roadsides, and golf courses excluding greens and tees. May apply to bentgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, fescue species, bahiagrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, and zoysiagrass. Do not spray on warm season turf less than 0.5 inch and do not exceed 3 pints per acre. Generally apply 3 to 4 pints per acre except on fairway bentgrass, which can only tolerate 2 pints per acre. Wait 3 to 4 weeks after application to reseed. Check label for spray adjuvant recommendation.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

florasulam, MOA 2 (Defendor) 0.42 SC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.09 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

4 fl oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.013125

Precaution and Remarks

Can be used on all established major warm and cool season turfgrass species in residential lawns, golf courses (excluding putting greens), sports fields, sod farms and commercial turf areas. Controls Carolina geranium, species of chickweed, clover and dandelion, vetch, dollarweed and common groundsel. Do not exceed 3 applications or 12 fluid ounces per acre per year. Apply to newly seeded or sprigged turf after third mowing or when tillering and secondary root development has occurred. Wait 4 weeks to reseed. When used alone, add a nonionic surfactant at 0.2% by volume.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

penoxsulam, MOA 2 (various brands) 0.014 G or 0.03 G

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

3.4 to 10.3 lb or 1.7 to 4.6 lb

Amount of Formulation per Acre

150 to 450 lb or 75 to 200 lb

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.02 to 0.06

Precaution and Remarks

May be applied to residential and commercial lawns, golf courses (excluding greens and tees), parks, athletic fields, and sod farms. Use on turf that has been mowed at least 3 times or sprigs that have developed secondary root systems. Apply up to 75 pounds per acre of 0.03 G or 150 pounds per acre of 0.014 G to perennial ryegrass and tall fescue. Apply up to 150 pounds per acre of 0.03 G or 300 pounds per acre of 0.014 G to bentgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, and fine fescue. Apply up to 200 pounds per acre of 0.03 G or 450 pounds per acre of 0.014 G to bermudagrass, centipedegreass, zoysiagrass, and St. Augustinegrass. Do not apply to dormant centipedegrass. Reapply at 4 weeks if needed but do not exceed 300 pounds per acre of 0.03 G or 650 pounds per acre of 0.014 G per season. After treatment, wait 3 to 4 weeks to reseed.

Presentations

Publications

Species Data

Growth Season/Life Cycle

winter annual or biennial weed

Growth Habit

prostrate, spreading

autopsy
autopsy
autopsy
clover
clover
clover
flower2
flower2
flower2
flowers
flowers
flowers
flowers3
flowers3
flowers3
flowers4
flowers4
flowers4
leafarrangement
leafarrangement
leafarrangement
p1050393
p1050393
p1050393
p1050857
p1050857
p1050857
p1050949
p1050949
p1050949
weed
weed
weed
weed2
weed2
weed2
Leaflet Number

leaf is trifoliate

flowers
flowers
flowers
flowers4
flowers4
flowers4
flowers5
flowers5
flowers5
hop clover 2
hop clover 2
hop clover 2
leaf
leaf
leaf
leafarrangement
leafarrangement
leafarrangement
p1050954
p1050954
p1050954
p1050955
p1050955
p1050955
Leaf Margin

serrated/toothed

flower3
flower3
flower3
leaf
leaf
leaf
leafarrangement
leafarrangement
leafarrangement
p1050406
p1050406
p1050406
Leaf Hairs

none or on upper/lower surface

Leaf/Leaflet Shape

leaflets are elliptical

flower3
flower3
flower3
flowers4
flowers4
flowers4
leaf
leaf
leaf
leafarrangement
leafarrangement
leafarrangement
p1050394
p1050394
p1050394
p1050396
p1050396
p1050396
p1050398
p1050398
p1050398
p1050875
p1050875
p1050875
Leaf Width

<1/2 - 1 inch

flower3
flower3
flower3
leaf
leaf
leaf
leafarrangement
leafarrangement
leafarrangement
Leaf Venation

pinnate; prominent veins

flower3
flower3
flower3
flowers4
flowers4
flowers4
hop clover 2
hop clover 2
hop clover 2
leaf
leaf
leaf
leafarrangement
leafarrangement
leafarrangement
Leaf Arrangement

alternate

flower2
flower2
flower2
flowers4
flowers4
flowers4
hop clover 2
hop clover 2
hop clover 2
leafarrangement
leafarrangement
leafarrangement
p1050394
p1050394
p1050394
p1050396
p1050396
p1050396
p1050398
p1050398
p1050398
p1050406
p1050406
p1050406
p1050954
p1050954
p1050954
Root Type

fibrous

p1050951
p1050951
p1050951
Flower Color

yellow

flower2
flower2
flower2
flower3
flower3
flower3
flower4
flower4
flower4
flowers
flowers
flowers
flowers3
flowers3
flowers3
hop clover 2
hop clover 2
hop clover 2
hopclover flower
hopclover flower
hopclover flower
leafarrangement
leafarrangement
leafarrangement
p1050857
p1050857
p1050857
p1050875
p1050875
p1050875
p1050954
p1050954
p1050954
p1050955
p1050955
p1050955
weed
weed
weed