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Persian Speedwell

Description

Persian speedwell (also called veronica speedwell) is a low-growing winter annual weed found in turf, nursery crops, and waste areas. Speedwells can grow in a variety of situations, but are mostly found in shady areas with dry, sandy, or rocky soils. One of the most noticeable characteristics of this and several other speedwell species are the blue flowers. Corn and ivyleaf speedwell are also winter annuals with a similar leaf shape. Ivyleaf speedwell leaves are thicker and less serrated than those of either corn or Persian speedwell. Like the other speedwells, the leaves are both alternate (end of stem) and opposite (base of stem). In addition, the flowers of corn speedwell are borne on short stalks (less than 1 mm long), whereas those of Persian and ivyleaf speedwell are borne on stalks longer than 1 mm. The seedpods are heart-shaped for all three species.

Cultural Control

Persian speedwell is a low-growing winter annual weed found in turf, nursery crops, and waste areas. Winter annual broadleaf weeds germinate in the fall or winter and grow during any warm weather, which may occur in the winter, but otherwise remain somewhat dormant during the winter. They resume growth and produce seed in the spring and die as temperatures increase in late spring and early summer. They quickly invade thin turf areas especially where there is good soil moisture. Shade may also encourage growth. A dense, vigorous turf is the best way to reduce the encroachment of this weed. First, select adapted turfgrass cultivars for your area and then properly fertilize, mow, and water to encourage dense growth. Persian speedwell is similar in appearance to ivy and corn speedwell, but is easier to control than corn speedwell.

Chemical Control

Herbicide and Formulation
Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft
Amount of Formulation per Acre
Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

Preemergence and Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

mesotrione, MOA 27 (Tenacity) 4 SC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.092 to 0.183 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

4 to 8 fl oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.125 to 0.25

Precaution and Remarks

Use on residential turf, golf courses (not greens) and sod farms for pre- and postemergence weed control. Tolerant turfgrasses include St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass, tall fescue, fine fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, and perennial ryegrass. Add a nonionic surfactant and repeat application after 2 to 3 weeks for improved postemergence control. Tank mix with Barricade 65 WG for extended preemergence grassy weed control. Can be applied at seeding to all tolerant grasses except fine fescue. After turf germination, wait 4 weeks or until turf has been mowed twice before making a postemergence application. Also controls henbit, chickweed, dandelion, white clover, Florida betony, Florida pusley, ground ivy, oxalis, wild violet, creeping bentgrass, and yellow nutsedge.

Preemergence and Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

sulfentrazone + prodiamine, MOA 14 + 3 (Echelon 4 SC) 4 SC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.184 to 0.826 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

0.5 to 2.25 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.25 to 1.125

Precaution and Remarks

For use in residential and institutional lawns, athletic fields, sod farms, golf course fairways and roughs, roadsides, utility right-of-ways, railways, and industrial areas. Apply to turf following a second mowing if a good root system has been established. Apply up to 12 fluid ounces per acre to bentgrass at 0.5 inches or higher, fine fescue, and perennial ryegrass. Apply 18 to 24 fluid ounces per acre to perennial bluegrass, tall fescue, and all warm season grasses except St. Augustinegrass (do not apply) and bermudagrass (apply 18 to 36 fluid ounces per acre). For sod production, apply 6 months after establishment, and do not harvest within 3 months. Do not apply with adjuvants or surfactants. Echelon should not be applied to cool-season turf with N-containing fertilizers unless some short-term discoloration is tolerable.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

clopyralid, MOA 4 (Lontrel) 3 EC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.1 to 0.5 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

0.25 to 1.33 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.09 to 0.5

Precaution and Remarks

Do not apply to home lawns. May be used on bentgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, creeping, red, chewings, sheep and tall fescue, perennial ryegrass, bermudagrass, bahiagrass, buffalograss, centipedegrass, zoysiagrass, and St. Augustinegrass. Do not apply to putting greens and tees. Should be applied in a minimum of 20 gallons of water per acre. Surfactants are not necessary. Do not apply to exposed roots of certain trees and shrubs (legumes such as acacia, locust, mimosa, redbud, or mesquite) or Tilia spp. Do not use treated clippings for mulching and compost during the growing season of application.

Presentations

Publications

Species Data

Growth Season/Life Cycle

winter annual weed

Growth Habit

prostrate, spreading

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autopsy persian ivyleaf c2
autopsy persian ivyleaf c2
autopsy persian ivyleaf c2
autopsy persian ivyleaf cor
autopsy persian ivyleaf cor
autopsy persian ivyleaf cor
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persian ivyleaf corn
persian ivyleaf corn
persian ivyleaf corn
Leaflet Number

one

Leaf Margin

serrated/toothed

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autopsy81
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leaves persian ivyleaf c
leaves persian ivyleaf c
leaves persian ivyleaf c
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Leaf Hairs

upper/lower surface

leaves persian ivyleaf c
leaves persian ivyleaf c
leaves persian ivyleaf c
Leaf/Leaflet Shape

heart/kidney/spade

leaves persian ivyleaf c
leaves persian ivyleaf c
leaves persian ivyleaf c
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seedpods 1
seedpods 1
seedpods 1
Leaf Venation

palmate

leaves persian ivyleaf c
leaves persian ivyleaf c
leaves persian ivyleaf c
Leaf Arrangement

lower leaves opposite, upper leaves alternate

alternate and opposite leav
alternate and opposite leav
alternate and opposite leav
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autopsy
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autopsy2
autopsy2
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Root Type

fibrous

Flower Color

blue/purple

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