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Wild Violet

Description

Wild violets are winter annual or perennial weeds that often grow in clumps. The plants form rhizomes that support heart-shaped leaves. The flowers of wild violet have five petals and are usually purple, but can also be white or yellow. The flowers usually appear in early spring and summer, and the plants are most often found in shady habitats.

Cultural Control

Wild violets are winter annual or perennial weeds that often grow in clumps. The plants form rhizomes and are difficult to control. They are often found in shady locations. They are capable of living more than two years. Proper turf maintenance is the key to control of this weed. First, select adapted turfgrass cultivars for your area and then properly fertilize, mow, and water to encourage dense growth.

Chemical Control

Herbicide and Formulation
Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft
Amount of Formulation per Acre
Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

Preemergence and Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

mesotrione, MOA 27 (Tenacity) 4 SC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.092 to 0.183 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

4 to 8 fl oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.125 to 0.25

Precaution and Remarks

Use on residential turf, golf courses (not greens) and sod farms for pre- and postemergence weed control. Tolerant turfgrasses include St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass, tall fescue, fine fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, and perennial ryegrass. Add a nonionic surfactant and repeat application after 2 to 3 weeks for improved postemergence control. Tank mix with Barricade 65 WG for extended preemergence grassy weed control. Can be applied at seeding to all tolerant grasses except fine fescue. After turf germination, wait 4 weeks or until turf has been mowed twice before making a postemergence application. Also controls henbit, chickweed, dandelion, white clover, Florida betony, Florida pusley, ground ivy, oxalis, wild violet, creeping bentgrass, and yellow nutsedge.

Preemergence and Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

sulfentrazone + prodiamine, MOA 14 + 3 (Echelon 4 SC) 4 SC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.184 to 0.826 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

0.5 to 2.25 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.25 to 1.125

Precaution and Remarks

For use in residential and institutional lawns, athletic fields, sod farms, golf course fairways and roughs, roadsides, utility right-of-ways, railways, and industrial areas. Apply to turf following a second mowing if a good root system has been established. Apply up to 12 fluid ounces per acre to bentgrass at 0.5 inches or higher, fine fescue, and perennial ryegrass. Apply 18 to 24 fluid ounces per acre to perennial bluegrass, tall fescue, and all warm season grasses except St. Augustinegrass (do not apply) and bermudagrass (apply 18 to 36 fluid ounces per acre). For sod production, apply 6 months after establishment, and do not harvest within 3 months. Do not apply with adjuvants or surfactants. Echelon should not be applied to cool-season turf with N-containing fertilizers unless some short-term discoloration is tolerable.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

triclopyr + clopyralid, MOA 4 + 4 (Confront) 3 SL (2-D) 3 SL

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.37 to 0.74 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1 to 2 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.28 to 0.56 + 0.09 to 0.19

Precaution and Remarks

Do not apply to home lawns. May be used on centipedegrass, bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, tall fescue, creeping red fescue, chewing fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass. Repeat treatment may be necessary for prostrate spurge and wild violet. 2-D: maintain 0.5 inch height for warm season turf. Do not apply to bermudagrass sod farms. Wait 3 weeks to reseed. Do not use grass clippings for compost or mulch.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

MCPA ester + triclopyr ester + dicamba, MOA 4 + 4 + 4 (Cool Power) 3.6 EC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.91 to 1.29 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2.5 to 3.5 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

1.125 to 1.575

Precaution and Remarks

May be applied to home lawns by a commercial applicator. Not for use on turf grown for resale or other commercial use as sod or seed production. Use on perennial bluegrass, ryegrass, fescue species, bentgrass (excluding greens and tees), bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, and bahiagrass. Do not apply to seedling grasses until well established. Wait 3 to 4 weeks after application to seed.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

MCPA amine + triclopyr amine + dicamba, MOA 4 + 4 + 4 (Horsepower) 4.56 L

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.73 to 1.1 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2 to 3 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

1.14 to 1.71

Precaution and Remarks

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

MCPA amine + fluroxypyr ester + triclopyr amine, MOA 4+4+4 (Battleship III) 3.41 L

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.37 to 1.47 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1 to 4 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.42625 to 1.705

Precaution and Remarks

Apply by a commercial applicator to residential, industrial, and institutional lawns, sod farms, parks, cemeteries, athletic fields, roadsides, and golf courses excluding greens and tees. May apply to bentgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, fescue species, bahiagrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, and zoysiagrass. Do not spray on warm season turf less than 0.5 inch and do not exceed 3 pints per acre. Generally apply 3 to 4 pints per acre except on fairway bentgrass, which can only tolerate 2 pints per acre. Wait 3 to 4 weeks after application to reseed. Check label for spray adjuvant recommendation.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

carfentrazone + 2,4-D ester + MCPP + dicamba, MOA 14 + 4 + 4 + 4 (Speed Zone) 2.2 EC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.75 to 1.8 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2 to 5 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.55 to 1.375

Precaution and Remarks

May be used on annual and perennial bluegrass, annual and perennial ryegrass, tall and fine fescue, creeping and colonial bentgrass, common and hybrid bermudagrass, and zoysiagrass. For use in ornamental turf, golf courses, lawns, sod farms, cemeteries, and parks. Optimum results when applied when temperatures are between 45 and 75 degrees F but may be applied up to 90 degrees F. Lower rates may be used in cooler weather. Rainfast within 3 hr and may reseed after 2 week. May apply 3 to 4 wk after sodding, sprigging, or plugging. Also may be used on bahiagrass, buffalograss, St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass, seashore paspalum, and kikuyugrass. May reseed after 1 week.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

carfentrazone + 2,4-D ester + MCPP + dicamba, MOA 14 + 4 + 4 + 4 (Speed Zone Southern) 0.81 EC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.55 to 2.2 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1.5 to 6 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.1519 to 0.6075

Precaution and Remarks

May be used on annual and perennial bluegrass, annual and perennial ryegrass, tall and fine fescue, creeping and colonial bentgrass, common and hybrid bermudagrass, and zoysiagrass. For use in ornamental turf, golf courses, lawns, sod farms, cemeteries, and parks. Optimum results when applied when temperatures are between 45 and 75 degrees F but may be applied up to 90 degrees F. Lower rates may be used in cooler weather. Rainfast within 3 hr and may reseed after 2 week. May apply 3 to 4 wk after sodding, sprigging, or plugging. Also may be used on bahiagrass, buffalograss, St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass, seashore paspalum, and kikuyugrass. May reseed after 1 week.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

carfentrazone + MCPA ester + MCPP + dicamba, MOA 14 + 4 + 4 + 4 (Power Zone) 2.91 EC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.75 to 2.2 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2 to 6 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.7275 to 2.1825

Precaution and Remarks

Same precautions and turf uses as Speed Zone 2.2 EC except cannot be applied to creeping and colonial bentgrass.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

sulfentrazone + 2,4-D amine + MCPP + dicamba, MOA 14 + 4 + 4 + 4 (Surge) 2.18 SL

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.92 to 1.84 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2.5 to 5 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.68 to 1.36

Precaution and Remarks

Apply 2.5 to 3.25 pints per acre on warm season turf including bermudagrass species, zoysiagrass, bahiagrass, and buffalograss. Apply 3.25 to 4 pints per acre on cool season turf including species of bluegrass, ryegrass, fescue, and bentgrass (excluding greens and tees). 4 to 5 pints per acre needed to control corn speedwell and wild violet. Turf areas include residential, ornamental, institutional, and sod farms. Apply to grass seedlings after second mowing. Apply to sodded, sprigged, or plugged areas 3 to 4 weeks after operations. Treated areas may be reseeded 3 weeks after application.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

triclopyr ester + sulfentrazone + 2,4-D ester + dicamba, MOA 4 + 14 + 4 + 4 (T Zone) 2.51 EC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.75 to 1.5 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2 to 4 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.628 to 1.26

Precaution and Remarks

Apply 2 to 2.25 pints per acre on fully dormant bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, and bahiagrass. Apply 3.25 to 4 pints per acre on annual and perennial bluegrass and ryegrass, and tall, red, and fine fescue. Rainfast within 3 hours. Approved turf areas include residential, ornamental, institutional, noncropland, and sod farms. Apply to grass seedlings after the second or third mowing. Apply to sodded, sprigged, or plugged areas 3 to 4 weeks after operations. Treated areas may be reseeded 3 weeks after application.

Presentations

Publications

Species Data

Growth Season/Life Cycle

winter annual or perennial weed

Growth Habit

rosette

autopsy3
autopsy3
autopsy3
p1020216
p1020216
p1020216
p1040692
p1040692
p1040692
wild violet
wild violet
wild violet
Leaflet Number

one

autopsy3
autopsy3
autopsy3
Leaf Margin

serrated/toothed

autopsy3
autopsy3
autopsy3
leafback
leafback
leafback
leaftop
leaftop
leaftop
p1040692
p1040692
p1040692
Leaf Hairs

none

Leaf/Leaflet Shape

heart/kidney/spade/linear/oblong

autopsy3
autopsy3
autopsy3
leafback
leafback
leafback
leaftop
leaftop
leaftop
p1040661
p1040661
p1040661
p1050233
p1050233
p1050233
Leaf Width

1/2 inch (13 mm) to more than 2 inches (50 mm) wide

autopsy3
autopsy3
autopsy3
leafback
leafback
leafback
leaftop
leaftop
leaftop
Leaf Venation

palmate

autopsy3
autopsy3
autopsy3
leafback
leafback
leafback
leaftop
leaftop
leaftop
Leaf Arrangement

alternate

autopsy3
autopsy3
autopsy3
p1040629
p1040629
p1040629
p1040661
p1040661
p1040661
Root Type

fibrous; note also the rhizomes associated with this plant

autopsy3
autopsy3
autopsy3
p1040629
p1040629
p1040629
p1040635
p1040635
p1040635
rhizome
rhizome
rhizome
rhizome2
rhizome2
rhizome2
Flower Color

usually purple; sometimes white or yellow

p1040629
p1040629
p1040629
p1040641
p1040641
p1040641
p1040646
p1040646
p1040646
p1040653
p1040653
p1040653
p1050208
p1050208
p1050208
p1050233
p1050233
p1050233
p1050248
p1050248
p1050248
wild violet
wild violet
wild violet