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Yellow Nutsedge

Description

Yellow nutsedge is a native of North America and is found throughout the United States and is one of the more cold-tolerant sedge species. Yellow nutsedge is a rapidly spreading perennial that forms brown- to tan-colored tubers at the tips of rhizomes. It gets its name from the yellowish-brown or straw-colored seedhead. This weed can be a severe problem in both warm- and cool-season turf species. There are several ways that purple and yellow nutsedge can be distinguished. Purple nutsedge produces tubers in chains connected by rhizomes, whereas yellow nutsedge only produces tubers at the tips of rhizomes. Purple nutsedge tends to have darker green leaves and produces a characteristic reddish-purple seedhead. The leaf tips of purple nutsedge tend to be blunter than those of yellow. Although this weed can be difficult to control, it is much easier to control than other sedge species, so proper identification is important.

Cultural Control

Yellow nutsedge is found throughout the United States and is one of the more cold-tolerant sedge species. Yellow nutsedge is a rapidly spreading perennial. This weed can be a severe problem in both warm- and cool-season turf species. Sedges are weeds that resemble grasses but unlike grasses, sedges have three-sided or triangular stems. It is important to properly distinguish sedges from grasses because management is totally different. Sedges are plants that thrive in wet or poorly drained soils but can survive in areas that are not wet. Because of frequent irrigation in highly maintained turf, sedges often thrive in the turfgrass environment. Sedges often become established in wet areas and spread to other areas that are not poorly drained or wet areas. Therefore, it is important to recognize areas where sedges can become established and prevent spread of these sedge species to other areas of the golf course or landscape. Although this weed can be difficult to control, it is much easier to control than other sedge species. Proper identification is important to obtain effective control. Timing of control strategies is also important. Control strategies should begin in the spring after maximum shoot emergence but before new tuber production. Beginning in late June and early July, this weed species starts to add new tubers, which will lead to additional weed problems in future years.

Chemical Control

Herbicide and Formulation
Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft
Amount of Formulation per Acre
Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

Preemergence and Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

mesotrione, MOA 27 (Tenacity) 4 SC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.092 to 0.183 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

4 to 8 fl oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.125 to 0.25

Precaution and Remarks

Use on residential turf, golf courses (not greens) and sod farms for pre- and postemergence weed control. Tolerant turfgrasses include St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass, tall fescue, fine fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, and perennial ryegrass. Add a nonionic surfactant and repeat application after 2 to 3 weeks for improved postemergence control. Tank mix with Barricade 65 WG for extended preemergence grassy weed control. Can be applied at seeding to all tolerant grasses except fine fescue. After turf germination, wait 4 weeks or until turf has been mowed twice before making a postemergence application. Also controls henbit, chickweed, dandelion, white clover, Florida betony, Florida pusley, ground ivy, oxalis, wild violet, creeping bentgrass, and yellow nutsedge.

Preemergence and Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

sulfentrazone + prodiamine, MOA 14 + 3 (Echelon 4 SC) 4 SC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.184 to 0.826 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

0.5 to 2.25 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.25 to 1.125

Precaution and Remarks

For use in residential and institutional lawns, athletic fields, sod farms, golf course fairways and roughs, roadsides, utility right-of-ways, railways, and industrial areas. Apply to turf following a second mowing if a good root system has been established. Apply up to 12 fluid ounces per acre to bentgrass at 0.5 inches or higher, fine fescue, and perennial ryegrass. Apply 18 to 24 fluid ounces per acre to perennial bluegrass, tall fescue, and all warm season grasses except St. Augustinegrass (do not apply) and bermudagrass (apply 18 to 36 fluid ounces per acre). For sod production, apply 6 months after establishment, and do not harvest within 3 months. Do not apply with adjuvants or surfactants. Echelon should not be applied to cool-season turf with N-containing fertilizers unless some short-term discoloration is tolerable.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

MSMA, MOA 17 (various brands)

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

Amount of Formulation per Acre

several concentrations

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

1.82 to 4.5

Precaution and Remarks

Bermudagrass, bluegrass and zoysiagrass are tolerant. Injury may result on bentgrass, fescue and St. Augustinegrass (commercial sod production only). Do not use on carpetgrass or centipedegrass. MSMA restrictions: For existing golf courses, spot treat (100 square feet per spot) not to exceed 25% of total acreage. For new courses, make 1 broadcast application per year. For sod farms, make 1 to 2 broadcast applications per year and maintain 25 feet buffer around permanent water bodies. For highway rights of way, make 2 broadcast applications and maintain 100 feet buffer around permanent water bodies.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

bentazon, MOA 6 (Basagran T/O or Lescogran) 4 SL

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.75 to 1.5 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1 to 2 qt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

1 to 2

Precaution and Remarks

For control of yellow nutsedge in established bluegrass, fescues, bentgrass, ryegrass, bermudagrass, bahiagrass, St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass, and zoysiagrass. Apply to yellow nutsedge when actively growing under good soil moisture conditions. Additional applications may be made at intervals of 10 to 14 days until nutsedge is controlled.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

flazasulfuron, MOA 2 (Katana) 25 DG

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.034 to 0.069 oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1.5 to 3 oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.023 to 0.0469

Precaution and Remarks

For use on well established bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, centipedegrass and seashore paspalum grown on nonresidential turf including golf course fairways, roughs and tees, and industrial parks, tank-sod- and seed farms, cemeteries, athletic field and commercial lawns. Apply a maximum of 1.5 ounces per acre on fully green centipedegrass and seashore paspalum. 3 ounces per acre needed for perennial nutsedge and some annual sedge species control. Repeat applications in 2 to 6 weeks when nutsedge or sedge growth is evident. 1.5 to 2.25 ounces per acre will control kyllinga species. Maintain a 25 feet nontreated border beside susceptible turf species. Can overseed in 2 weeks if applied up to 1.5 ounces per acre. Wait 4 weeks if applied more than 1.5 ounces per acre. Include a nonionic surfactant at 0.25% by volume.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

imazaquin, MOA 2 (Image 70 DG) 70 DG

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.128 to 0.256 oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

0.357 to 0.714 lb

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.25 to 0.5

Precaution and Remarks

Use on bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, and zoysiagrass. Do not apply during spring greenup. Temporary yellowing may occur. Add a nonionic surfactant at 2 pt per 100 gal of spray solution. Addition of MSMA at 1.5 lb active per acre will improve sedge control in MSMA tolerant turfgrasses.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

halosulfuron, MOA 2 (Sedgehammer or Prosedge) 75 WDG

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.9 g

Amount of Formulation per Acre

0.67 to 1.33 oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.031 to 0.062

Precaution and Remarks

May be applied to established residential and commercial bermudagrass, bahiagrass, zoysiagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, creeping bentgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, and fine fescue. Apply broadcast when sedges have reached the 3- to 8-leaf stage. Use lower rate for light infestations and higher rate for heavy infestations. A second treatment will usually be required 6 to 10 weeks after the initial treatment. Use an 80% active nonionic surfactant at 2 quart per 100 gal of spray solution (0.5% by volume). Do not exceed 1 to 2 pint of surfactant per acre. Do not apply to putting greens. Sedgehammer and Prosedge only suppress green kyllinga.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

MSMA, MOA 17 (various brands)

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

Amount of Formulation per Acre

several concentrations

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

2 to 3

Precaution and Remarks

See remarks for MSMA above. Will require at least 2 applications 7 to 10 days apart.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

sulfosulfuron, MOA 2 (Certainty) 75 DG

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.017 to 0.029 oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

0.75 to 1.25 oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.035 to 0.059

Precaution and Remarks

May be applied to certain ornamental native grasses and also bermudagrass species, zoysiagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, and kikuyugrass grown on sod farms, golf courses (excluding greens), commercial and residential turf that is highly managed, and other noncrop areas. Use 0.75 to 1.25 ounces per acre, and repeat in 4 to 10 weeks if needed. Use a nonionic surfactant at 0.25% by volume.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

trifloxysulfuron, MOA 2 (Monument 75 WG) 75 WG

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.0023 to 0.0129 oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

0.1 to 0.56 oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.0047 to 0.0263

Precaution and Remarks

May be applied to residential bermudagrass and zoysiagrass and also on golf courses, sod farms, and other nonresidential turf areas. A nonionic surfactant at 0.25 to 0.5% by volume is recommended. Temporary discoloration may occur if used with MSO or COC. Use rates of 0.33 to 0.56 ounces per acre for sedge and kyllinga species control. Labeled turf species can be seeded or sprigged into treated areas 4 weeks after application. Repeat application may be needed in 4 to 6 weeks.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

sulfentrazone, MOA 14 (Dismiss) 4 SC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.092 to 0.275 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

0.25 to 0.75 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.125 to 0.375

Precaution and Remarks

May be applied to home lawns. For use on creeping bentgrass, tall and fine fescue, perennial ryegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, and all warm-season turf species except St. Augustinegrass. Wait 3 months to seed, overseed, or sprig unless overseeding bermudagrass with perennial ryegrass, which only requires a 4- to 6-week waiting period after application. Apply to seedling grasses after second mowing and to new sod 6 months after establishment.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

sulfentrazone + imazethapyr, MOA 14 + 2 (Dismiss South) 4 SC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.22 to 0.33 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

9.5 to 14.4 fl oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.29 to 0.45

Precaution and Remarks

May be applied to home lawns, athletic fields, sod farms, golf course fairways and roughs, and various non-crop sites. For use on bahiagrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, and zoysiagrass. Do not apply to soils classified as sand with less than 1% organic matter. Do not reseed, overseed, or sprig within 1 month of application. Expect slight perennial ryegrass injury if overseeded 2 to 4 weeks after application. Allow 3 month sod establishment before treatment.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

sulfentrazone + metsulfuron, MOA 14 + 2 (Blindside) 66 WG

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.075 to 0.23 oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

3.25 to 10 oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.134 to 0.413

Precaution and Remarks

May be applied to established residential, commercial and institutional lawns, athletic fields, sod farms, and golf course fairways and roughs. Use up to 6.5 ounces per acre on Kentucky bluegrass and tall fescue and 10 ounces per acre on bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St Augustinegrass and zoysiagrass. Do not reseed, overseed, or sprig within 1 month of application. Expect slight perennial ryegrass injury if overseeded 6 to 8 weeks after application. Allow 3 months sod establishment before treatment. No adjuvant needed.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

imazapic, MOA 2 (Plateau DG) 70 DG

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.032 to 0.066 oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1.43 to 2.86 oz (1 to 2 water soluble packs)

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.063 to 0.125

Precaution and Remarks

For use on centipedegrass only when grown as fine turf in nonresidential areas such as commercial and industrial turf, golf courses, and other recreational areas. Not for use in home lawns. Do not use on other turfgrass species. See label for mixing instructions of water soluble packs. A repeat application may be needed on tough to control perennial weeds such as bahiagrass. The highest labeled rate may discolor centipedegrass by causing a red color.

Presentations

Publications

Species Data

Growth Season/Life Cycle

perennial weed

Seed Arrangement on Spikes

loose; seedhead a distinct yellow when compared to purple nutsedge's purple hue

seedhead2
seedhead2
seedhead2
seedhead4
seedhead4
seedhead4
weed2
weed2
weed2
yellownutsedge2
yellownutsedge2
yellownutsedge2
yellow nutsedge head1
yellow nutsedge head1
yellow nutsedge head1
yellow purplenutsedge6
yellow purplenutsedge6
yellow purplenutsedge6
Seedhead Spikelet Shape

flattened

seedhead2
seedhead2
seedhead2
seedhead4
seedhead4
seedhead4
weed2
weed2
weed2
yellownutsedge2
yellownutsedge2
yellownutsedge2
yellownutsedge seedhead
yellownutsedge seedhead
yellownutsedge seedhead
yellow nutsedge head1
yellow nutsedge head1
yellow nutsedge head1
yellow purplenutsedge6
yellow purplenutsedge6
yellow purplenutsedge6
Tuber Type

tan tubers have little taste - might be slightly sweet

tuber
tuber
tuber