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TURFGRASS GLOSSARY

Active Ingredient

The chemical in a pesticide that controls the target pest.

Adjuvant

Chemical added to a pesticide formulation or tank mix to improve mixing, application or activity of a herbicide. Spray adjuvant examples include fertilizers, surfactants, methylated seed oils and crop oil concentrates.

Aeration

Removal of soil cores from a turf with hollow tines or spoons. This can help to alleviate soil compaction.

Alternate

Leaves appear singly at each node as in greenbriar or prostrate knotweed.
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Annual

A plant starting from seed and completing its life cycle in the same growing season.

Arsonate Herbicide (Herbicide, Arsonate)

This class of herbicides poses very little concern as far as toxicity to humans. Their mode of action is not well understood. The arsonates are also very water soluble. Arsonates include DSMA, MSMA (Bueno 6, MSMA Turf), and CMA.

Auricle

A claw-like appendage projecting from the collar of the leaf.
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Basal

Arising from the base of the stem.
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Biennial

A plant starting from seed and requiring two years to complete its life cycle.

Blade

The flat portion of the grass leaf above the sheath.
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Blend, Seed

A combination of two or more cultivars of the same species, e.g., Rebel and Falcon tall fescue.

Blighting of Entire Leaves

Disease symptoms cover whole leaves and produce a distinct border between healthy and diseased turf.
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Blisters

Raised areas of diseased leaf tissue that change color and then rupture to release powdery masses of fungal spores.
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Broadcast

Uniform application to an entire area.

Broadleaf

Plants with flattened leaves; dicots, i.e., plants that possess two seedling leaves. Broadleaf plant characteristics are widely varied. Leaves are generally wide (wider than they are long), and have net-like veins. They can have either round or square stems, and growth can be upright, prostrate or vining. Broadleaf plants can have a taproot, a bulbous root, or fibrous roots. They generally have showy flowers. Three key indicators help categorize a plant almost definitively as a broadleaf, rather than a grass, rush, or sedge: a square stem, a non-linear leaf shape, or a non-fibrous root system.
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Bud Leaf

First emerged leaf of a grass plant.

Bunch Type Growth Habit

Plant development in the absence of rhizome and stolon production; a non-spreading grass.

Bunchgrass

A non-spreading grass which lacks rhizomes and stolons.
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Capsule

A dry type of fruit that contains seed.
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Carrier

An inert material added to an active ingredient to prepare a formulation of a pesticide.

Certified Seed (Seed, Certified)

A seed lot inspected to meet minimum standards and to ensure trueness to type for a given cultivar.

Circles

Localized areas of disease damage in turf that are perfectly circular and greater than 4 inches in diameter.
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Collar

A narrow band marking the place where the blade and sheath of a grass leaf join: divided--collar divided by the midrib; continuous--collar not divided by the midrib
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Compaction

Soils that are subject to heavy traffic are prone to compaction (compression). Compacted soils reduce drainage, increase runoff, and inhibit root growth. Aerifying (aeration) helps to alleviate compaction.

Contact Herbicide (Herbicide, Contact)

Herbicide that injures only those portions of the plant with which it comes into contact.

Cool-Season

A cool-season turfgrass species has optimum growth at temperatures between 60 and 75°F. Cool-season grasses include creeping bentgrass, fine fescue, tall fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, annual ryegrass, and perennial ryegrass.

Coring

Removal of soil cores from a turf with hollow tines or spoons.

Corm

A short, thickened, upright underground stem.

Creeping Growth Habit

Plant development at or near the soil surface that results in lateral spreading by rhizomes and/or stolons.
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Crop Seed

Any seed grown for profit, often including undesirable grassy weeds, e.g., orchardgrass.

Crown

That portion of the grass plant which includes the stem apex, unelongated internodes, and lower nodes from which secondary roots begin.
Image for glossary term 'Crown'.

Culm

A stem of a grass plant.

Cultivar

A cultivated variety of a species, e.g., K-31, Rebel, etc.

Cultivation

In turf, the working of the soil without the destruction of the turf.
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