Diseases ›

Rust

Symptoms

Early symptoms include small, yellow flecks that develop on the leaves and stems. The flecks expand over time into raised pustules, yellow or orange in color, that rupture to release powdery masses of spores. Infected plants become yellow and are more susceptible to environmental stress. Heavily infected areas become thin and exhibit clouds of orange dust (rust spores) when the foliage is disturbed. The rust pustules on infected leaves turn black during the fall in preparation for overwintering.

Development Factors

Rust fungi survive the winter in living plant tissue from which new spores are produced in the spring. Spores produced in the spring, summer, and fall are spread by the wind, germinate on the leaves, and infect new tissue. Extended periods of leaf wetness are required for the spores to germinate and for the disease to develop rapidly.

Rust diseases are most severe in turf that is growing slowly due to adverse weather conditions or inadequate management. Low light intensity, inadequate fertilization, drought stress, and infrequent mowing encourage rust development.

Cultural Control

Plant rust-resistant turfgrass varieties whenever possible to reduce injury from this disease. Select cultivars based on regional trials and university recommendations. When planting cool-season turfs, use blends and mixtures of multiple species and/or varieties whenever possible. Plant shade tolerant grasses and raise mowing heights in heavily shaded areas.

Prune trees and remove unwanted undergrowth to improve air movement and reduce prolonged leaf wetness. Mow the turf on a regular basis, removing no more than 1/3 of the foliage in one mowing. Collect and dispose of clippings taken from infected areas to slow the spread of rust.

Fertilize to meet the nutritional needs of the turf. Submit a soil sample for analysis on a regular basis and apply recommended amounts of phosphorus, potassium, and lime. Apply nitrogen based on university recommendations.

Use the Turf Irrigation Management System available on TurfFiles to schedule irrigation based on weather conditions and turf needs. Water deeply but infrequently to encourage deep rooting and reduce drought stress and extended periods of leaf wetness. Avoid watering the turf before sunset or after sunrise.

Chemical Control

Fungicides can be used on a preventative or curative basis for rust control. Susceptible turfs should be monitored regularly for rust development during periods of cool and cloudy weather.

Fungicide and Formulation1
Amount of Formulation2
Application Interval3
Efficacy Rating
Resistance Risk
Fungicide and Formulation1

azoxystrobin
(Heritage, Strobe)
(Heritage TL)
(Heritage G)

Amount of Formulation2


0.2 to 0.4
1 to 2
2 to 4 lbs

Application Interval3


14 to 28
14 to 28
14 to 28

Efficacy Rating

++++


Resistance Risk

High


Fungicide and Formulation1

azoxystrobin + acibenzolar-S-methyl (Heritage Action)*

Amount of Formulation2

0.2 to 0.4

Application Interval3

14 to 28

Efficacy Rating

++++

Resistance Risk

High

Fungicide and Formulation1

azoxystrobin + chlorothalonil (Renown)*

Amount of Formulation2

2.5 to 4.5

Application Interval3

14 to 21

Efficacy Rating

++++

Resistance Risk

High

Fungicide and Formulation1

azoxystrobin + difenoconazole (Briskway)*

Amount of Formulation2

0.5 to 0.725

Application Interval3

14 to 28

Efficacy Rating

++++

Resistance Risk

High

Fungicide and Formulation1

azoxystrobin + propiconazole (Headway)
ME
G

Amount of Formulation2


1.5 to 3
2 to 4 lbs

Application Interval3


14 to 28
14 to 28

Efficacy Rating

++++

Resistance Risk

High

Fungicide and Formulation1

azoxystrobin + tebuconazole (Strobe T)*

Amount of Formulation2

0.75 to 1.5

Application Interval3

14 to 21

Efficacy Rating

++++

Resistance Risk

High

Fungicide and Formulation1

chlorothalonil
(Daconil Ultrex)*
(Daconil Weather Stik, Legend)*
(Daconil Zn)*
(Chlorothalonil 500ZN)*

(Chlorothalonil 720SFT)*

(Chlorothalonil)*

Amount of Formulation2


3.7 to 5
4.0 to 5.5
6 to 8
3 to 5
7.9
2.12 to 3.5
5.5
3.2

Application Interval3


14
14
14
7 to 14
14
7 to10
14
7 to 14

Efficacy Rating

+++







Resistance Risk

Low







Fungicide and Formulation1

chlorothalonil + acibenzolar-S-methyl (Daconil Action) *

Amount of Formulation2

4 to 5.4

Application Interval3

14

Efficacy Rating

+++

Resistance Risk

Low

Fungicide and Formulation1

chlorothalonil + fluoxastrobin (Fame C)*

Amount of Formulation2

3 to 5.9

Application Interval3

14 to 28

Efficacy Rating

++++

Resistance Risk

Medium

Fungicide and Formulation1

chlorothalonil + propiconazole (Concert)*

Amount of Formulation2

3 to 5.5
4.5 to 8.5

Application Interval3

7 to 14
14 to 28

Efficacy Rating

++++

Resistance Risk

Medium

Fungicide and Formulation1

chlorothalonil + propiconazole + fludioxonil (Instrata)*

Amount of Formulation2

2.75 to 6

Application Interval3

14 to 28

Efficacy Rating

++++

Resistance Risk

Medium

Fungicide and Formulation1

chlorothalonil + thiophanate-methyl
(Spectro)*
(TM/C)*

Amount of Formulation2


3.72 to 5.76
3 to 8

Application Interval3


14
14 to 21

Efficacy Rating

+++

Resistance Risk

Medium

Fungicide and Formulation1

fluoxastrobin (Fame)

Amount of Formulation2

0.18 to 0.36

Application Interval3

14 to 28

Efficacy Rating

++++

Resistance Risk

High

Fungicide and Formulation1

mancozeb
(Fore)*
(Dithane)*

Amount of Formulation2


4
4

Application Interval3


7 to 14
10

Efficacy Rating

++

Resistance Risk

Low

Fungicide and Formulation1

metconazole (Tourney)

Amount of Formulation2

0.37

Application Interval3

14

Efficacy Rating

++++

Resistance Risk

Medium

Fungicide and Formulation1

myclobutanil (Eagle, Myclobutanil)

Amount of Formulation2

1.2

Application Interval3

14 to 28

Efficacy Rating

++++

Resistance Risk

Medium

Fungicide and Formulation1

propiconazole (Banner Maxx, Propiconazole)

Amount of Formulation2

1 to 2

Application Interval3

14 to 28

Efficacy Rating

++++

Resistance Risk

Medium

Fungicide and Formulation1

pyraclostrobin (Insignia)
WG
SC

Amount of Formulation2


0.5 to 0.9
0.4 to 0.7

Application Interval3


14 to 28
14 to 28

Efficacy Rating

++++

Resistance Risk

High

Fungicide and Formulation1

pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Honor)*

Amount of Formulation2

0.55 to 1.1

Application Interval3

14 to 28

Efficacy Rating

++++

Resistance Risk

High

Fungicide and Formulation1

pyraclostrobin + fluxapyroxad (Lexicon Intrinsic)

Amount of Formulation2

0.34 to 0.47

Application Interval3

14 to 28

Efficacy Rating

++++

Resistance Risk

High

Fungicide and Formulation1

tebuconazole
(Torque)*
(Mirage)*
(Tebuconazole)*

Amount of Formulation2


0.6 to 1.1
1 to 2
0.6

Application Interval3


refer to label
14 to 28
28

Efficacy Rating

++++


Resistance Risk

Medium


Fungicide and Formulation1

triadimefon (Bayleton)

Amount of Formulation2

0.5 to 1

Application Interval3

15 to 30

Efficacy Rating

++++

Resistance Risk

Medium

Fungicide and Formulation1

trifloxystrobin (Compass)

Amount of Formulation2

0.1 to 0.15
0.2 to 0.25

Application Interval3

14
21

Efficacy Rating

++

Resistance Risk

High

Fungicide and Formulation1

trifloxystrobin + triadimefon
(Armada)
(Tartan)*

Amount of Formulation2


0.6 to 1.2
1 to 2

Application Interval3


14 to 28
14 to 28

Efficacy Rating

++++

Resistance Risk

High

Fungicide and Formulation1

triticonazole
(Trinity)
(Triton)

Amount of Formulation2


0.5 to 1
0.15 to 0.225

Application Interval3


14 to 28
14 to 28

Efficacy Rating

++++

Resistance Risk

Medium

Fungicide and Formulation1

triticonazole + chlorothalonil (Reserve)*

Amount of Formulation2

3.2 to 4.5

Application Interval3

14 to 28

Efficacy Rating

++++

Resistance Risk

Medium

1 Other trade names with the same active ingredients are labeled for use on turfgrasses and can be used according to label directions.
2 Apply fungicides in 2 to 5 gallons of water per 1,000 square feet according to label directions. Use lower rates for preventive and higher rates for curative applications.
3 Use shorter intervals when conditions are very favorable for disease.
* Products marked with an asterisk are not labeled for home lawn use.

Efficacy Rating
++++ = excellent control when conditions are highly favorable for disease development
+++ = good control when disease pressure is high, excellent control when disease pressure is moderate
++ = good control when disease pressure is moderate, excellent control when disease pressure is low
+ = good control when disease pressure is low
? = not rated due to insufficient data

Resistance Risk
Low = Rotate to different chemical class after 3-4 applications; tank mixing not necessary
Medium = Rotate to different chemical class after 1-2 applications; tank-mixing with low or medium risk product recommended
High = Rotate to different chemical class after EVERY application; tank-mix with low or medium risk product for EVERY application
? = not rated due to insufficient data

Presentations

Publications

Species Data

Host species

Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass

rustkbg2 ltc
rustkbg2 ltc
rustkbg2 ltc
rustkbg5 ltc
rustkbg5 ltc
rustkbg5 ltc
rustkbg6 ltc
rustkbg6 ltc
rustkbg6 ltc
rustkbg ltc
rustkbg ltc
rustkbg ltc
rusttf ltc
rusttf ltc
rusttf ltc
Months with symptoms

March to June, September to November

Stand symptoms

irregular distribution across turf stand

rustkbg2 ltc
rustkbg2 ltc
rustkbg2 ltc
rustkbg6 ltc
rustkbg6 ltc
rustkbg6 ltc
rusttf ltc
rusttf ltc
rusttf ltc
rust standsymptoms irregular2 ltc
rust standsymptoms irregular2 ltc
rust standsymptoms irregular2 ltc
rust standsymptoms irregular ltc
rust standsymptoms irregular ltc
rust standsymptoms irregular ltc
Foliar symptoms location/shape

dieback from leaf tip, blighting of entire leaves, or no distinct leaf symptoms

dsc 1960 ltc
dsc 1960 ltc
dsc 1960 ltc
dsc 1966 ltc
dsc 1966 ltc
dsc 1966 ltc
dsc 1979 ltc
dsc 1979 ltc
dsc 1979 ltc
dsc 1983 ltc
dsc 1983 ltc
dsc 1983 ltc
field rusttf ltc
field rusttf ltc
field rusttf ltc
field rust tallfescue ltc
field rust tallfescue ltc
field rust tallfescue ltc
rustkbg2 ltc
rustkbg2 ltc
rustkbg2 ltc
rustkbg5 ltc
rustkbg5 ltc
rustkbg5 ltc
rustkbg ltc
rustkbg ltc
rustkbg ltc
rusttf ltc
rusttf ltc
rusttf ltc
rust ltc
rust ltc
rust ltc
rust plantsymptomsandsigns ltc
rust plantsymptomsandsigns ltc
rust plantsymptomsandsigns ltc
rust telia ltc
rust telia ltc
rust telia ltc
Foliar symptoms color

yellow or orange

dsc 1960 ltc
dsc 1960 ltc
dsc 1960 ltc
dsc 1966 ltc
dsc 1966 ltc
dsc 1966 ltc
dsc 1979 ltc
dsc 1979 ltc
dsc 1979 ltc
dsc 1983 ltc
dsc 1983 ltc
dsc 1983 ltc
field rusttf ltc
field rusttf ltc
field rusttf ltc
field rust tallfescue ltc
field rust tallfescue ltc
field rust tallfescue ltc
rustkbg2 ltc
rustkbg2 ltc
rustkbg2 ltc
rustkbg5 ltc
rustkbg5 ltc
rustkbg5 ltc
rustkbg ltc
rustkbg ltc
rustkbg ltc
rusttf ltc
rusttf ltc
rusttf ltc
rust ltc
rust ltc
rust ltc
rust plantsymptomsandsigns ltc
rust plantsymptomsandsigns ltc
rust plantsymptomsandsigns ltc
rust telia ltc
rust telia ltc
rust telia ltc
Root/Crown symptoms

none

Fungal Signs

blisters on leaves

dsc 3013 ltc
dsc 3013 ltc
dsc 3013 ltc
dsc 3016 ltc
dsc 3016 ltc
dsc 3016 ltc
field rust tallfescue ltc
field rust tallfescue ltc
field rust tallfescue ltc
rust ltc
rust ltc
rust ltc
rust plantsymptomsandsigns ltc
rust plantsymptomsandsigns ltc
rust plantsymptomsandsigns ltc
rust tallfescue signs pustules ltc
rust tallfescue signs pustules ltc
rust tallfescue signs pustules ltc
rust telia ltc
rust telia ltc
rust telia ltc
rust uredia ltc
rust uredia ltc
rust uredia ltc