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Buckhorn Plantain

Description

Buckhorn plantain is a very common fibrous-rooted weed found in poorly managed turfgrasses. The leaves are basal, long, narrow, and pointed with several prominent parallel veins. Flowers are arranged in a dense terminal spike on a long, hairy, leafless stem. As it blooms, the stamens are exerted from the spike.

Cultural Control

Buckhorn plantain is a very common perennial weed found in poorly managed turfgrasses. Perennial broadleaf turf weeds are capable of living more than two years. They thrive in weak, thin turf; golf fairways and roughs; home lawns; playfields; and industrial grounds. Proper turf maintenance is the key to control of this weed.

Chemical Control

Herbicide and Formulation
Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft
Amount of Formulation per Acre
Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

Preemergence and Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

mesotrione, MOA 27 (Tenacity) 4 SC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.092 to 0.183 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

4 to 8 fl oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.125 to 0.25

Precaution and Remarks

Use on residential turf, golf courses (not greens) and sod farms for pre- and postemergence weed control. Tolerant turfgrasses include St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass, tall fescue, fine fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, and perennial ryegrass. Add a nonionic surfactant and repeat application after 2 to 3 weeks for improved postemergence control. Tank mix with Barricade 65 WG for extended preemergence grassy weed control. Can be applied at seeding to all tolerant grasses except fine fescue. After turf germination, wait 4 weeks or until turf has been mowed twice before making a postemergence application. Also controls henbit, chickweed, dandelion, white clover, Florida betony, Florida pusley, ground ivy, oxalis, wild violet, creeping bentgrass, and yellow nutsedge.

Preemergence and Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

sulfentrazone + prodiamine, MOA 14 + 3 (Echelon 4 SC) 4 SC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.184 to 0.826 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

0.5 to 2.25 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.25 to 1.125

Precaution and Remarks

For use in residential and institutional lawns, athletic fields, sod farms, golf course fairways and roughs, roadsides, utility right-of-ways, railways, and industrial areas. Apply to turf following a second mowing if a good root system has been established. Apply up to 12 fluid ounces per acre to bentgrass at 0.5 inches or higher, fine fescue, and perennial ryegrass. Apply 18 to 24 fluid ounces per acre to perennial bluegrass, tall fescue, and all warm season grasses except St. Augustinegrass (do not apply) and bermudagrass (apply 18 to 36 fluid ounces per acre). For sod production, apply 6 months after establishment, and do not harvest within 3 months. Do not apply with adjuvants or surfactants. Echelon should not be applied to cool-season turf with N-containing fertilizers unless some short-term discoloration is tolerable.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

2,4-D amine, MOA 4 (various brands) 4 SL

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

3 to 4 tsp

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1.5 to 2 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.75 to 1

Precaution and Remarks

Cut rate one-half for bentgrass, carpetgrass, centipedegrass, and St. Augustinegrass. Spray when weeds are young and actively growing. To reduce danger of injury to flowers and ornamentals by spray drift, use low pressure and do not spray on windy days.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

triclopyr + clopyralid, MOA 4 + 4 (Confront) 3 SL (2-D) 3 SL

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.37 to 0.74 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1 to 2 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.28 to 0.56 + 0.09 to 0.19

Precaution and Remarks

Do not apply to home lawns. May be used on centipedegrass, bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, tall fescue, creeping red fescue, chewing fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass. Repeat treatment may be necessary for prostrate spurge and wild violet. 2-D: maintain 0.5 inch height for warm season turf. Do not apply to bermudagrass sod farms. Wait 3 weeks to reseed. Do not use grass clippings for compost or mulch.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

MCPA ester + triclopyr ester + dicamba, MOA 4 + 4 + 4 (Cool Power) 3.6 EC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.91 to 1.29 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2.5 to 3.5 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

1.125 to 1.575

Precaution and Remarks

May be applied to home lawns by a commercial applicator. Not for use on turf grown for resale or other commercial use as sod or seed production. Use on perennial bluegrass, ryegrass, fescue species, bentgrass (excluding greens and tees), bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, and bahiagrass. Do not apply to seedling grasses until well established. Wait 3 to 4 weeks after application to seed.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

MCPA amine + triclopyr amine + dicamba, MOA 4 + 4 + 4 (Horsepower) 4.56 L

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.73 to 1.1 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2 to 3 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

1.14 to 1.71

Precaution and Remarks

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

MCPA amine + fluroxypyr ester + triclopyr amine, MOA 4+4+4 (Battleship III) 3.41 L

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.37 to 1.47 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1 to 4 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.42625 to 1.705

Precaution and Remarks

Apply by a commercial applicator to residential, industrial, and institutional lawns, sod farms, parks, cemeteries, athletic fields, roadsides, and golf courses excluding greens and tees. May apply to bentgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, fescue species, bahiagrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, and zoysiagrass. Do not spray on warm season turf less than 0.5 inch and do not exceed 3 pints per acre. Generally apply 3 to 4 pints per acre except on fairway bentgrass, which can only tolerate 2 pints per acre. Wait 3 to 4 weeks after application to reseed. Check label for spray adjuvant recommendation.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

carfentrazone-ethyl, MOA 14 (QuickSilver) 1.9 EW

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.0126 to 0.048 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

0.55 to 2.1 fl oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.008 to 0.031

Precaution and Remarks

May be applied to bahiagrass, bermudagrass, buffalograss, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, fine fescue, perennial ryegrass, and bentgrass. To expand the weed spectrum and extend control of the weeds listed here and on the label, carfentrazone-ethyl can be tank mixed with the entire range of phenoxy products—amines, esters, and other salts—and is also compatible with dicamba, atrazine, glyphosate, glufosinate, clopyralid, triclopyr, and MSMA. When applied alone, add 0.12 to 0.25% nonionic surfactant.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

carfentrazone + 2,4-D ester + MCPP + dicamba, MOA 14 + 4 + 4 + 4 (Speed Zone) 2.2 EC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.75 to 1.8 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2 to 5 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.55 to 1.375

Precaution and Remarks

May be used on annual and perennial bluegrass, annual and perennial ryegrass, tall and fine fescue, creeping and colonial bentgrass, common and hybrid bermudagrass, and zoysiagrass. For use in ornamental turf, golf courses, lawns, sod farms, cemeteries, and parks. Optimum results when applied when temperatures are between 45 and 75 degrees F but may be applied up to 90 degrees F. Lower rates may be used in cooler weather. Rainfast within 3 hr and may reseed after 2 week. May apply 3 to 4 wk after sodding, sprigging, or plugging. Also may be used on bahiagrass, buffalograss, St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass, seashore paspalum, and kikuyugrass. May reseed after 1 week.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

carfentrazone + 2,4-D ester + MCPP + dicamba, MOA 14 + 4 + 4 + 4 (Speed Zone Southern) 0.81 EC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.55 to 2.2 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1.5 to 6 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.1519 to 0.6075

Precaution and Remarks

May be used on annual and perennial bluegrass, annual and perennial ryegrass, tall and fine fescue, creeping and colonial bentgrass, common and hybrid bermudagrass, and zoysiagrass. For use in ornamental turf, golf courses, lawns, sod farms, cemeteries, and parks. Optimum results when applied when temperatures are between 45 and 75 degrees F but may be applied up to 90 degrees F. Lower rates may be used in cooler weather. Rainfast within 3 hr and may reseed after 2 week. May apply 3 to 4 wk after sodding, sprigging, or plugging. Also may be used on bahiagrass, buffalograss, St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass, seashore paspalum, and kikuyugrass. May reseed after 1 week.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

carfentrazone + MCPA ester + MCPP + dicamba, MOA 14 + 4 + 4 + 4 (Power Zone) 2.91 EC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.75 to 2.2 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2 to 6 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.7275 to 2.1825

Precaution and Remarks

Same precautions and turf uses as Speed Zone 2.2 EC except cannot be applied to creeping and colonial bentgrass.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

sulfentrazone + 2,4-D amine + MCPP + dicamba, MOA 14 + 4 + 4 + 4 (Surge) 2.18 SL

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.92 to 1.84 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2.5 to 5 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.68 to 1.36

Precaution and Remarks

Apply 2.5 to 3.25 pints per acre on warm season turf including bermudagrass species, zoysiagrass, bahiagrass, and buffalograss. Apply 3.25 to 4 pints per acre on cool season turf including species of bluegrass, ryegrass, fescue, and bentgrass (excluding greens and tees). 4 to 5 pints per acre needed to control corn speedwell and wild violet. Turf areas include residential, ornamental, institutional, and sod farms. Apply to grass seedlings after second mowing. Apply to sodded, sprigged, or plugged areas 3 to 4 weeks after operations. Treated areas may be reseeded 3 weeks after application.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

triclopyr ester + sulfentrazone + 2,4-D ester + dicamba, MOA 4 + 14 + 4 + 4 (T Zone) 2.51 EC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.75 to 1.5 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2 to 4 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.628 to 1.26

Precaution and Remarks

Apply 2 to 2.25 pints per acre on fully dormant bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, and bahiagrass. Apply 3.25 to 4 pints per acre on annual and perennial bluegrass and ryegrass, and tall, red, and fine fescue. Rainfast within 3 hours. Approved turf areas include residential, ornamental, institutional, noncropland, and sod farms. Apply to grass seedlings after the second or third mowing. Apply to sodded, sprigged, or plugged areas 3 to 4 weeks after operations. Treated areas may be reseeded 3 weeks after application.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

2,4-D amine + fluroxypyr + dicamba, MOA 4 + 4 + 4 (Escalade) 4.4 SL or (Escalade Low Odor) 4.4 SL (Escalade 2) 4 SL

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.46 to 1.84 fl oz 0.36 to 1.1 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1.25 to 5 pt 1 to 3 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.69 to 2.75 0.5 to 1.5

Precaution and Remarks

Use on perennial bluegrass and ryegrass, tall fescue, creeping bentgrass (excluding greens and tees), bermudagrass species, bahiagrass, zoysiagrass, and St. Augustinegrass in residential, industrial, and institutional lawns, parks, cemeteries, athletic fields, golf courses, and sod farms. Use on St. Augustinegrass sod farms only. Apply 1 to 2 pints per acre on creeping bentgrass and 1.5 to 1.8 pints per acre on warm season turf grown for sod. Apply 2 to 3 pints per acre to all other turf areas. For non-turf areas, rate can be increased to 2 to 5 pinst per acre. Application can be made to grass seedlings after second mowing and to newly sodded, sprigged, or plugged grasses 3 to 4 weeks after operations.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

MCPA amine + fluroxypyr ester + dicamba, MOA 4 + 4 + 4 (Change Up) 4.8 SL

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.73 to 1.1 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2 to 3 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

1.2 to 1.8

Precaution and Remarks

Same turf tolerances and uses as Escalade 2 in addition to centipedegrass. Only spot treat St. Augustinegrass when temperature exceeds 80 degrees F. Do not apply more than two applications per year totaling 3 pints per acre. For non-turf areas, rate can be increased to 2 to 5 pints per acre. Application can be made to grass seedlings after second mowing and to newly sodded, sprigged, or plugged grasses 3 to 4 weeks after operations. Sod farm rates include 1.25 pints per acre for creeping bentgrass, 2 to 3 pints per acre for all other cool season grasses listed on label and 1.5 to 1.8 pints per acre for all warm season grasses listed on label.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

florasulam, MOA 2 (Defendor) 0.42 SC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.09 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

4 fl oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.013125

Precaution and Remarks

Can be used on all established major warm and cool season turfgrass species in residential lawns, golf courses (excluding putting greens), sports fields, sod farms and commercial turf areas. Controls Carolina geranium, species of chickweed, clover and dandelion, vetch, dollarweed and common groundsel. Do not exceed 3 applications or 12 fluid ounces per acre per year. Apply to newly seeded or sprigged turf after third mowing or when tillering and secondary root development has occurred. Wait 4 weeks to reseed. When used alone, add a nonionic surfactant at 0.2% by volume.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

penoxsulam, MOA 2 (various brands) 0.014 G or 0.03 G

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

3.4 to 10.3 lb or 1.7 to 4.6 lb

Amount of Formulation per Acre

150 to 450 lb or 75 to 200 lb

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.02 to 0.06

Precaution and Remarks

May be applied to residential and commercial lawns, golf courses (excluding greens and tees), parks, athletic fields, and sod farms. Use on turf that has been mowed at least 3 times or sprigs that have developed secondary root systems. Apply up to 75 pounds per acre of 0.03 G or 150 pounds per acre of 0.014 G to perennial ryegrass and tall fescue. Apply up to 150 pounds per acre of 0.03 G or 300 pounds per acre of 0.014 G to bentgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, and fine fescue. Apply up to 200 pounds per acre of 0.03 G or 450 pounds per acre of 0.014 G to bermudagrass, centipedegreass, zoysiagrass, and St. Augustinegrass. Do not apply to dormant centipedegrass. Reapply at 4 weeks if needed but do not exceed 300 pounds per acre of 0.03 G or 650 pounds per acre of 0.014 G per season. After treatment, wait 3 to 4 weeks to reseed.

Presentations

Publications

Species Data

Growth Season/Life Cycle

summer annual or biennial or perennial weed

Growth Habit

rosette

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buckhorn plantain
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weed
weed
Leaflet Number

one

Leaf Margin

may be slightly toothed, often curled

leaf
leaf
leaf
leaf width
leaf width
leaf width
Leaf Hairs

only on the margins of the first leaves, later leaves are sparsely hairy

Leaf/Leaflet Shape

linear/oblong; narrow

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leaf
leaf
Leaf Width

1/2 - 1 inch

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leaf
leaf
leaf width
leaf width
leaf width
Leaf Venation

parallel; prominent

leaf
leaf
leaf
leaf width
leaf width
leaf width
Leaf Arrangement

whorled or basal rosette

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buckhorn plantain
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buckhornplantain p1180582
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buckhornplantain p1190864
buckhornplantain p1190864
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weed
weed
Root Type

many fibrous roots arise from the taproot

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roots
roots
Flower Color

white; inconspicuous