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Florida Betony

Description

Florida betony is a hard-to-control perennial weed that emerges in the fall and becomes a problem in late winter and spring. It is easily recognized by the very characteristic white tuber that resembles a rattlesnake rattle. This weed also has square stems and produces white to pink flowers in the spring. It is found in the southern United States west to Texas and north to Virginia.

Cultural Control

Perennial broadleaf turf weeds are capable of living more than two years. They thrive in weak, thin turf; golf fairways and roughs; home lawns; playfields; and industrial grounds. Proper turf maintenance is the key to control of this weed. First, select adapted turfgrass cultivars for your area and then properly fertilize, mow, and water to encourage dense growth.

Chemical Control

Herbicide and Formulation
Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft
Amount of Formulation per Acre
Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

Preemergence and Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

mesotrione, MOA 27 (Tenacity) 4 SC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.092 to 0.183 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

4 to 8 fl oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.125 to 0.25

Precaution and Remarks

Use on residential turf, golf courses (not greens) and sod farms for pre- and postemergence weed control. Tolerant turfgrasses include St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass, tall fescue, fine fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, and perennial ryegrass. Add a nonionic surfactant and repeat application after 2 to 3 weeks for improved postemergence control. Tank mix with Barricade 65 WG for extended preemergence grassy weed control. Can be applied at seeding to all tolerant grasses except fine fescue. After turf germination, wait 4 weeks or until turf has been mowed twice before making a postemergence application. Also controls henbit, chickweed, dandelion, white clover, Florida betony, Florida pusley, ground ivy, oxalis, wild violet, creeping bentgrass, and yellow nutsedge.

Preemergence and Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

sulfentrazone + prodiamine, MOA 14 + 3 (Echelon 4 SC) 4 SC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.184 to 0.826 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

0.5 to 2.25 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.25 to 1.125

Precaution and Remarks

For use in residential and institutional lawns, athletic fields, sod farms, golf course fairways and roughs, roadsides, utility right-of-ways, railways, and industrial areas. Apply to turf following a second mowing if a good root system has been established. Apply up to 12 fluid ounces per acre to bentgrass at 0.5 inches or higher, fine fescue, and perennial ryegrass. Apply 18 to 24 fluid ounces per acre to perennial bluegrass, tall fescue, and all warm season grasses except St. Augustinegrass (do not apply) and bermudagrass (apply 18 to 36 fluid ounces per acre). For sod production, apply 6 months after establishment, and do not harvest within 3 months. Do not apply with adjuvants or surfactants. Echelon should not be applied to cool-season turf with N-containing fertilizers unless some short-term discoloration is tolerable.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

thiencarbazone-methyl + iodosulfuron + dicamba, MOA 14 + 2 + 4 (Celsius WG) 68 WG

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.057 to 0.113 oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2.5 to 4.9 oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.106 to 0.208

Precaution and Remarks

For use by licensed applicators in residential and commercial lawns, golf courses (excluding greens), sports fields, parks, recreational areas, roadsides, school grounds, and sod farms. Provides up to 60 days residual control. Use on bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, centipedegrass, and St Augustinegrass. Apply maximum 7.4 ounces per acre per season. Safe to use at high temperatures. Ryegrass can be overseeded 2 weeks after application. Apply 30 days prior to seeding bermudagrass or zoysiagrass. Wait 2 weeks after bermudagrass seedlling emergence or sprigging operation before applying. For zoysiagrass, wait 3 weeks after seedling emergence before applying. A nonionic surfactant or methylated seed oil at 0.25% v/v is required for optimum control.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

florasulam, MOA 2 (Defendor) 0.42 SC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.09 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

4 fl oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.013125

Precaution and Remarks

Can be used on all established major warm and cool season turfgrass species in residential lawns, golf courses (excluding putting greens), sports fields, sod farms and commercial turf areas. Controls Carolina geranium, species of chickweed, clover and dandelion, vetch, dollarweed and common groundsel. Do not exceed 3 applications or 12 fluid ounces per acre per year. Apply to newly seeded or sprigged turf after third mowing or when tillering and secondary root development has occurred. Wait 4 weeks to reseed. When used alone, add a nonionic surfactant at 0.2% by volume.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

penoxsulam, MOA 2 (various brands) 0.014 G or 0.03 G

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

3.4 to 10.3 lb or 1.7 to 4.6 lb

Amount of Formulation per Acre

150 to 450 lb or 75 to 200 lb

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.02 to 0.06

Precaution and Remarks

May be applied to residential and commercial lawns, golf courses (excluding greens and tees), parks, athletic fields, and sod farms. Use on turf that has been mowed at least 3 times or sprigs that have developed secondary root systems. Apply up to 75 pounds per acre of 0.03 G or 150 pounds per acre of 0.014 G to perennial ryegrass and tall fescue. Apply up to 150 pounds per acre of 0.03 G or 300 pounds per acre of 0.014 G to bentgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, and fine fescue. Apply up to 200 pounds per acre of 0.03 G or 450 pounds per acre of 0.014 G to bermudagrass, centipedegreass, zoysiagrass, and St. Augustinegrass. Do not apply to dormant centipedegrass. Reapply at 4 weeks if needed but do not exceed 300 pounds per acre of 0.03 G or 650 pounds per acre of 0.014 G per season. After treatment, wait 3 to 4 weeks to reseed.

Presentations

Publications

Species Data

Growth Season/Life Cycle

perennial weed

Growth Habit

upright

autopsy2
autopsy2
autopsy2
floridabetony dsc 7066
floridabetony dsc 7066
floridabetony dsc 7066
Leaflet Number

one

floridabetony
floridabetony
floridabetony
Leaf Margin

serrated/toothed

floridabetony
floridabetony
floridabetony
floridabetony dsc 7066
floridabetony dsc 7066
floridabetony dsc 7066
floridabetony dsc 7069
floridabetony dsc 7069
floridabetony dsc 7069
floridabetony dsc 7071
floridabetony dsc 7071
floridabetony dsc 7071
leaf2
leaf2
leaf2
leafarrangment2
leafarrangment2
leafarrangment2
leafback
leafback
leafback
Leaf Hairs

none

Leaf/Leaflet Shape

heart/kidney/spade

floridabetony
floridabetony
floridabetony
floridabetony dsc 7066
floridabetony dsc 7066
floridabetony dsc 7066
floridabetony dsc 7069
floridabetony dsc 7069
floridabetony dsc 7069
floridabetony dsc 7071
floridabetony dsc 7071
floridabetony dsc 7071
leaf2
leaf2
leaf2
leafarrangment2
leafarrangment2
leafarrangment2
leafback
leafback
leafback
Leaf Width

1/2 - 1 inch

floridabetony
floridabetony
floridabetony
leaf2
leaf2
leaf2
leafarrangment2
leafarrangment2
leafarrangment2
leafback
leafback
leafback
Leaf Venation

palmate

floridabetony
floridabetony
floridabetony
floridabetony dsc 7069
floridabetony dsc 7069
floridabetony dsc 7069
floridabetony dsc 7071
floridabetony dsc 7071
floridabetony dsc 7071
leaf2
leaf2
leaf2
leafarrangment2
leafarrangment2
leafarrangment2
leafback
leafback
leafback
Leaf Arrangement

opposite

autopsy2
autopsy2
autopsy2
floridabetony
floridabetony
floridabetony
floridabetony dsc 7066
floridabetony dsc 7066
floridabetony dsc 7066
floridabetony dsc 7071
floridabetony dsc 7071
floridabetony dsc 7071
leafarrangment2
leafarrangment2
leafarrangment2
Root Type

fibrous; very distinctive white rattlesnake tubers

autopsy2
autopsy2
autopsy2
floridabetony dsc 7072
floridabetony dsc 7072
floridabetony dsc 7072
roots
roots
roots
tuber3
tuber3
tuber3
Flower Color

white to pink