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Henbit

Description

Henbit is a common winter annual or biennial weed found in North Carolina waste areas. Stems grow primarily upright but can root at the lower nodes. It branches freely from the base stems which are green or purple in color. Leaves are rounded, coarsely toothed, hairy, and deeply veined. Flowers are in whorls in the axils of the upper leaves. Petals are purple and fused into a two-lipped tube. It is similar to purple deadnettle in appearance but its upper leaves do not have petioles, whereas purple deadnettle's do. Purple deadnettle also has upper leaves that are distinctly red- or purple-tinged. Purple deadnettle and henbit both have distinctive four-sided (square) stems, and flower in early spring.

Cultural Control

Winter annual broadleaf weeds germinate in the fall or winter and grow during any warm weather, which may occur in the winter, but otherwise remain somewhat dormant during the winter. They resume growth and produce seed in the spring and die as temperatures increase in late spring and early summer. They quickly invade thin turf areas especially where there is good soil moisture. Shade may also encourage growth. Many have a prostrate growth habit and are not affected by mowing. A dense, vigorous turf is the best way to reduce the encroachment of winter annual weeds. First, select adapted turfgrass cultivars for your area and then properly fertilize, mow, and water to encourage dense growth.

Chemical Control

Herbicide and Formulation
Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft
Amount of Formulation per Acre
Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

Preemergence and Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

mesotrione, MOA 27 (Tenacity) 4 SC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.092 to 0.183 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

4 to 8 fl oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.125 to 0.25

Precaution and Remarks

Use on residential turf, golf courses (not greens) and sod farms for pre- and postemergence weed control. Tolerant turfgrasses include St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass, tall fescue, fine fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, and perennial ryegrass. Add a nonionic surfactant and repeat application after 2 to 3 weeks for improved postemergence control. Tank mix with Barricade 65 WG for extended preemergence grassy weed control. Can be applied at seeding to all tolerant grasses except fine fescue. After turf germination, wait 4 weeks or until turf has been mowed twice before making a postemergence application. Also controls henbit, chickweed, dandelion, white clover, Florida betony, Florida pusley, ground ivy, oxalis, wild violet, creeping bentgrass, and yellow nutsedge.

Preemergence and Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

sulfentrazone + prodiamine, MOA 14 + 3 (Echelon 4 SC) 4 SC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.184 to 0.826 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

0.5 to 2.25 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.25 to 1.125

Precaution and Remarks

For use in residential and institutional lawns, athletic fields, sod farms, golf course fairways and roughs, roadsides, utility right-of-ways, railways, and industrial areas. Apply to turf following a second mowing if a good root system has been established. Apply up to 12 fluid ounces per acre to bentgrass at 0.5 inches or higher, fine fescue, and perennial ryegrass. Apply 18 to 24 fluid ounces per acre to perennial bluegrass, tall fescue, and all warm season grasses except St. Augustinegrass (do not apply) and bermudagrass (apply 18 to 36 fluid ounces per acre). For sod production, apply 6 months after establishment, and do not harvest within 3 months. Do not apply with adjuvants or surfactants. Echelon should not be applied to cool-season turf with N-containing fertilizers unless some short-term discoloration is tolerable.

Postemergence Control or Suppression of Summer Weeds Such as Crabgrass Species

Herbicide and Formulation

thiencarbazone + foramsulfuron + halosulfuron, MOA 14 + 2 + 2 (Tribute Total) 60.5 WG

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.0735 oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

3.2 oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.121

Precaution and Remarks

Apply to well-established residential and commercial bermudagrass and zoysiagrass (Emerald, Meyer, Zeon) lawns, golf courses (excluding greens), athletic fields, sod farms, roadsides, parks, cemeteries and recreational areas. Do not exceed 3.2 ounces per acre per application or 6.4 ounces per acre yearly. Use 0.25 to 0.5% by volume nonionic surfactant or 0.5 to 1% by volume methylated seed oil. After application, wait 12 weeks to overseed ryegrass or bermudagrass. Wait 1 month after bermudagrass seedling emergence and 2 weeks after sprigging or sodding bermudagrass before treating. Temporary stunting and yellowing may last up to 2 weeks but turf will recover. Crabgrass and goosegrass are controlled up to 2 tiller stage.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

dicamba, MOA 4 (Banvel) 4 SL

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

1 to 2 tsp

Amount of Formulation per Acre

0.5 to 1 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.25 to 0.5

Precaution and Remarks

Apply as foliar spray to growing weeds. Prevent injury to ornamentals. Avoid rooting zone of shallow-rooted trees and shrubs.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

diglycolamine, MOA 4 (Vanquish) 4 SL

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

1 to 4.5 tsp

Amount of Formulation per Acre

0.5 to 2 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.25 to 1

Precaution and Remarks

Do not exceed 1 pint per acre on bentgrass, carpetgrass, buffalograss, and St. Augustinegrass. Apply to newly seeded grasses after the second mowing. Do not exceed 0.25 pint per acre on extended sensitve plant roots on sandy soils and 0.5 pint per acre on clay soils.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

2,4-D amine + fluroxypyr + dicamba, MOA 4 + 4 + 4 (Escalade) 4.4 SL or (Escalade Low Odor) 4.4 SL (Escalade 2) 4 SL

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.46 to 1.84 fl oz 0.36 to 1.1 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1.25 to 5 pt 1 to 3 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.69 to 2.75 0.5 to 1.5

Precaution and Remarks

Use on perennial bluegrass and ryegrass, tall fescue, creeping bentgrass (excluding greens and tees), bermudagrass species, bahiagrass, zoysiagrass, and St. Augustinegrass in residential, industrial, and institutional lawns, parks, cemeteries, athletic fields, golf courses, and sod farms. Use on St. Augustinegrass sod farms only. Apply 1 to 2 pints per acre on creeping bentgrass and 1.5 to 1.8 pints per acre on warm season turf grown for sod. Apply 2 to 3 pints per acre to all other turf areas. For non-turf areas, rate can be increased to 2 to 5 pinst per acre. Application can be made to grass seedlings after second mowing and to newly sodded, sprigged, or plugged grasses 3 to 4 weeks after operations.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

MCPA amine + fluroxypyr ester + dicamba, MOA 4 + 4 + 4 (Change Up) 4.8 SL

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.73 to 1.1 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2 to 3 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

1.2 to 1.8

Precaution and Remarks

Same turf tolerances and uses as Escalade 2 in addition to centipedegrass. Only spot treat St. Augustinegrass when temperature exceeds 80 degrees F. Do not apply more than two applications per year totaling 3 pints per acre. For non-turf areas, rate can be increased to 2 to 5 pints per acre. Application can be made to grass seedlings after second mowing and to newly sodded, sprigged, or plugged grasses 3 to 4 weeks after operations. Sod farm rates include 1.25 pints per acre for creeping bentgrass, 2 to 3 pints per acre for all other cool season grasses listed on label and 1.5 to 1.8 pints per acre for all warm season grasses listed on label.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

triclopyr + clopyralid, MOA 4 + 4 (Confront) 3 SL (2-D) 3 SL

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.37 to 0.74 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1 to 2 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.28 to 0.56 + 0.09 to 0.19

Precaution and Remarks

Do not apply to home lawns. May be used on centipedegrass, bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, tall fescue, creeping red fescue, chewing fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass. Repeat treatment may be necessary for prostrate spurge and wild violet. 2-D: maintain 0.5 inch height for warm season turf. Do not apply to bermudagrass sod farms. Wait 3 weeks to reseed. Do not use grass clippings for compost or mulch.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

MCPA ester + triclopyr ester + dicamba, MOA 4 + 4 + 4 (Cool Power) 3.6 EC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.91 to 1.29 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2.5 to 3.5 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

1.125 to 1.575

Precaution and Remarks

May be applied to home lawns by a commercial applicator. Not for use on turf grown for resale or other commercial use as sod or seed production. Use on perennial bluegrass, ryegrass, fescue species, bentgrass (excluding greens and tees), bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, and bahiagrass. Do not apply to seedling grasses until well established. Wait 3 to 4 weeks after application to seed.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

MCPA amine + triclopyr amine + dicamba, MOA 4 + 4 + 4 (Horsepower) 4.56 L

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.73 to 1.1 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2 to 3 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

1.14 to 1.71

Precaution and Remarks

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

MCPA amine + fluroxypyr ester + triclopyr amine, MOA 4+4+4 (Battleship III) 3.41 L

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.37 to 1.47 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1 to 4 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.42625 to 1.705

Precaution and Remarks

Apply by a commercial applicator to residential, industrial, and institutional lawns, sod farms, parks, cemeteries, athletic fields, roadsides, and golf courses excluding greens and tees. May apply to bentgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, fescue species, bahiagrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, and zoysiagrass. Do not spray on warm season turf less than 0.5 inch and do not exceed 3 pints per acre. Generally apply 3 to 4 pints per acre except on fairway bentgrass, which can only tolerate 2 pints per acre. Wait 3 to 4 weeks after application to reseed. Check label for spray adjuvant recommendation.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

carfentrazone-ethyl, MOA 14 (QuickSilver) 1.9 EW

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.0126 to 0.048 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

0.55 to 2.1 fl oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.008 to 0.031

Precaution and Remarks

May be applied to bahiagrass, bermudagrass, buffalograss, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, fine fescue, perennial ryegrass, and bentgrass. To expand the weed spectrum and extend control of the weeds listed here and on the label, carfentrazone-ethyl can be tank mixed with the entire range of phenoxy products—amines, esters, and other salts—and is also compatible with dicamba, atrazine, glyphosate, glufosinate, clopyralid, triclopyr, and MSMA. When applied alone, add 0.12 to 0.25% nonionic surfactant.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

carfentrazone + 2,4-D ester + MCPP + dicamba, MOA 14 + 4 + 4 + 4 (Speed Zone) 2.2 EC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.75 to 1.8 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2 to 5 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.55 to 1.375

Precaution and Remarks

May be used on annual and perennial bluegrass, annual and perennial ryegrass, tall and fine fescue, creeping and colonial bentgrass, common and hybrid bermudagrass, and zoysiagrass. For use in ornamental turf, golf courses, lawns, sod farms, cemeteries, and parks. Optimum results when applied when temperatures are between 45 and 75 degrees F but may be applied up to 90 degrees F. Lower rates may be used in cooler weather. Rainfast within 3 hr and may reseed after 2 week. May apply 3 to 4 wk after sodding, sprigging, or plugging. Also may be used on bahiagrass, buffalograss, St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass, seashore paspalum, and kikuyugrass. May reseed after 1 week.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

carfentrazone + 2,4-D ester + MCPP + dicamba, MOA 14 + 4 + 4 + 4 (Speed Zone Southern) 0.81 EC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.55 to 2.2 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1.5 to 6 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.1519 to 0.6075

Precaution and Remarks

May be used on annual and perennial bluegrass, annual and perennial ryegrass, tall and fine fescue, creeping and colonial bentgrass, common and hybrid bermudagrass, and zoysiagrass. For use in ornamental turf, golf courses, lawns, sod farms, cemeteries, and parks. Optimum results when applied when temperatures are between 45 and 75 degrees F but may be applied up to 90 degrees F. Lower rates may be used in cooler weather. Rainfast within 3 hr and may reseed after 2 week. May apply 3 to 4 wk after sodding, sprigging, or plugging. Also may be used on bahiagrass, buffalograss, St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass, seashore paspalum, and kikuyugrass. May reseed after 1 week.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

carfentrazone + MCPA ester + MCPP + dicamba, MOA 14 + 4 + 4 + 4 (Power Zone) 2.91 EC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.75 to 2.2 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2 to 6 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.7275 to 2.1825

Precaution and Remarks

Same precautions and turf uses as Speed Zone 2.2 EC except cannot be applied to creeping and colonial bentgrass.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

sulfentrazone + 2,4-D amine + MCPP + dicamba, MOA 14 + 4 + 4 + 4 (Surge) 2.18 SL

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.92 to 1.84 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2.5 to 5 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.68 to 1.36

Precaution and Remarks

Apply 2.5 to 3.25 pints per acre on warm season turf including bermudagrass species, zoysiagrass, bahiagrass, and buffalograss. Apply 3.25 to 4 pints per acre on cool season turf including species of bluegrass, ryegrass, fescue, and bentgrass (excluding greens and tees). 4 to 5 pints per acre needed to control corn speedwell and wild violet. Turf areas include residential, ornamental, institutional, and sod farms. Apply to grass seedlings after second mowing. Apply to sodded, sprigged, or plugged areas 3 to 4 weeks after operations. Treated areas may be reseeded 3 weeks after application.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

triclopyr ester + sulfentrazone + 2,4-D ester + dicamba, MOA 4 + 14 + 4 + 4 (T Zone) 2.51 EC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.75 to 1.5 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

2 to 4 pt

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.628 to 1.26

Precaution and Remarks

Apply 2 to 2.25 pints per acre on fully dormant bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, and bahiagrass. Apply 3.25 to 4 pints per acre on annual and perennial bluegrass and ryegrass, and tall, red, and fine fescue. Rainfast within 3 hours. Approved turf areas include residential, ornamental, institutional, noncropland, and sod farms. Apply to grass seedlings after the second or third mowing. Apply to sodded, sprigged, or plugged areas 3 to 4 weeks after operations. Treated areas may be reseeded 3 weeks after application.

Carpetweed

Herbicide and Formulation

pyraflufen ethyl, MOA 14 (Octane 2% SC) 0.177 SC

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.016 to 0.092 fl oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

0.7 to 4 fl oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.000938 to 0.0055

Precaution and Remarks

Used in established sod farm and ornamental turf by commercial applicators and professional landscapers only. Turf can be newly seeded, sodded, or sprigged as long as it is established and not under stress. Tolerant turfgrasses include bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass, tall fescue, perennial ryegrass, perennial bluegrass, and creeping bentgrass (not greens or tees). Apply 1 to 4 fl ounces alone to 3- to 6-inch tall weeds. For larger weeds and broader spectrum control, apply 0.75 to 1.5 fl ounces and tank mix with 2,4-D, mecoprop, dicamba, chloroprop, MCPA, triclopyr, or fluroxypyr.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

metsulfuron, MOA 2 (Blade, Manor, or MSM Turf) 60 WDG

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.003 to 0.02 oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

0.125 to 1 oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.005 to 0.038

Precaution and Remarks

May be applied to established bermudagrass, zoysiagrass (Meyer or Emerald), St. Augustinegrass, Kentucky bluegrass or fine fescue. Do not apply to turf less than 1 year old. Do not exceed 0.5 ounces per acre on centipedegrass, fine fescue, or Kentucky bluegrass. See label for a complete list of weeds controlled. The addition of 0.25% nonionic surfactant will enhance control. May be used for removal of perennial ryegrass from overseeded warm-season turf species. For bahiagrass control, use 0.25 to 0.75 ounces per acre after spring greenup but before seedhead development. A repeat treatment may be necessary in 4 to 6 weeks.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

(Patriot) 60 WDG

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.007 to 0.046 oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

0.33 to 2 oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.012 to 0.075

Precaution and Remarks

Apply to unimproved industrial turf only. Use maximum of 0.5 ounces per acre for fescue and bluegrass and 2 ounces per acre for bermudagrass.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

metsulfuron + rimsulfuron, MOA 2 + 2 (Negate 37 WG) 37 WG

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.0344352 oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1.5 oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.0346875

Precaution and Remarks

See comments under postemergence annual bluegrass control. For bahiagrass control, a repeat treatment may be necessary 4 to 6 weeks after initial application.

Postemergence Control

Herbicide and Formulation

chlorsulfuron, MOA 2 (Corsair) 75 WDG

Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft

0.02 to 0.122 oz

Amount of Formulation per Acre

1 to 5.33 oz

Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre

0.05 to 0.25

Precaution and Remarks

May be applied to all established turfgrass species except tall fescue, buffalograss, ryegrass, and dichondra. Some discoloration or delayed greenup may occur on St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass, zoysiagrass, or bahiagrass if applied while turf is under stress. See label for a complete list of weeds controlled. The addition of 0.25% nonionic surfactant will enhance control.

Presentations

Publications

Species Data

Growth Season/Life Cycle

winter annual or biennial weed

p1040408
p1040408
p1040408
Growth Habit

stems are prostrate, but erect at the tip, square (four-sided), and often purple-tinged

autopsy3
autopsy3
autopsy3
autopsy 2
autopsy 2
autopsy 2
stem2
stem2
stem2
weed
weed
weed
weed2
weed2
weed2
Leaflet Number

one

seedling
seedling
seedling
Leaf Margin

bluntly toothed

flowers4
flowers4
flowers4
leaf2
leaf2
leaf2
seedling
seedling
seedling
sessileleaves2
sessileleaves2
sessileleaves2
stem2
stem2
stem2
weed2
weed2
weed2
Leaf Hairs

dense on upper surface, along the veins on lower surface

Leaf/Leaflet Shape

heart/kidney/spade

flowers4
flowers4
flowers4
leafattachment
leafattachment
leafattachment
sessileleaves2
sessileleaves2
sessileleaves2
stem2
stem2
stem2
Leaf Width

1/2 - 2 inches

flowers4
flowers4
flowers4
leaf2
leaf2
leaf2
Leaf Venation

palmate

flowers4
flowers4
flowers4
leaf2
leaf2
leaf2
leafattachment
leafattachment
leafattachment
seedling
seedling
seedling
Leaf Arrangement

opposite

flowers4
flowers4
flowers4
leaf2
leaf2
leaf2
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leafattachment
leafattachment
seedling
seedling
seedling
stem2
stem2
stem2
Root Type

fibrous

roots
roots
roots
Flower Color

blue/purple

flowers4
flowers4
flowers4
weed
weed
weed