Goosegrass

Description

Goosegrass is a very troublesome grassy weed in athletic fields, golf greens, tees and fairways, and in other turfgrasses that are mowed short. It germinates when soil temperatures reach 60 to 65°F, and requires moisture and light for germination. Goosegrass has a prostrate growth habit, and is often white in the center with a wagon-wheel like appearance. Unlike crabgrass, it does not root at the nodes, but grows well in compacted soils. It competes very successfully with warm-season and cool-season turfgrasses during summer months and is most competitive in thin, open turfs and turfs subject to intense traffic or use.

Cultural Control

Goosegrass is most competitive in thin, open turfs and turfs subject to intense traffic or use. Close mowing and frequent watering enhance goosegrass competition. It is a very troublesome weed in athletic fields, golf greens, tees and fairways and other turfgrasses that are mowed short. Goosegrass germinates when soil temperatures reach 60°F, which is usually at least two weeks later than crabgrass. It competes very successfully with warm-season and cool-season turfgrasses during summer months. A severe goosegrass infestation may indicate the need for aerification to alleviate compaction.

Chemical Control

Herbicide and Formulation Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft Amount of Formulation per Acre Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre
Preemergence Control
benefin, MOA 3 (2.5 G) (various brands) 2.75 lb 120 lb 3
Precaution and Remarks: Safe to apply to all established turfgrass except bentgrass. Do not apply in the spring to lawns seeded the previous fall or to golf course greens. Do not use on newly sprigged turfgrasses​.
[benefin + trifluralin], MOA 3 + 3 (0.86 G) (Fertilizer with Team Pro 0.86%) 8 lb 349 lb 3
Precaution and Remarks: Use on lawns and golf course fairways of bahiagrass, bentgrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, fescue, perennial ryegrass, St. Augustinegrass, and zoysiagrass.​
bensulide, MOA 8 (4 EC, 8.5 G, 12.5 G) (various brands) varies because several concentrations available 10
Precaution and Remarks: May be applied to all established turfgrass and dichondra, residential lawns, and golf course greens and tees. Limit 2 applications per year to greens and tees. Do not use on newly sprigged turfgrasses. Not effective for goosegrass control.​
[bensulide + oxadiazon], MOA 8 + 14 (6.56 G) (Goosegrass/Crabgrass Control) 2.6 lb 116 lb 6 + 1.5
Precaution and Remarks: Controls crabgrass and goosegrass. Use on established bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, tall fescue, bentgrass, perennial bluegrass, or perennial ryegrass fairways and tees. Use also on bermudagrass and bentgrass greens.​
dithiopyr, MOA 4 (various brands) 2 EW, 2 L 0.75 fl oz 1 qt 0.5
40 WP 0.46 oz 20 oz 0.5
Precaution and Remarks: May be applied to most all cool-season and warm-season turfgrasses except colonial bentgrass. See label for injury precautions regarding certain varieties. Also controls pre-tillered crabgrass. Split applications recommended in southern and coastal regions of the state (0.25 pound a.i. at 8-week intervals). Timely irrigation or rainfall is critical for activation.​
indaziflam, MOA 21 (various brands) 20 WSP 0.057 to 0.115 oz 2.5 to 5 oz 0.03125 to 0.0625
0.622F 0.69 to 0.23 fl oz 3 to 10 fl oz 0.01458 to 0.0486
0.0224 G 2.9 to 4.6 lb 125 to 200 lb 0.028 to 0.045
Precaution and Remarks: Use only on established turf (1 year after seeding) such as bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, seashore paspalum, and bahiagrass. Labeled for commercial and residential lawns, golf courses (roughs, tees, fairways), sod farms, athletic fields, parks and cemeteries. Use a minimum of 2.5 ounces per acre for crabgrass, annual bluegrass and broadleaf weed control and a minimum of 3.75 ounces per acre for goosegrass, annual sedge and kyllinga species control. Apply up to 2.5 ounces per acre on centipedegrass and St. Augustinegrass due to tolerance concerns. For all other tolerant turfgrasses, do not exceed 5 ounces per acre in a single application or 7.1 ounces per acre within a calendar year. There is an 8 month overseeding restriction following a 2.5 ounces per acre application. Can sprig 2 months following application, or if sprigged first, wait 4 months before spraying. Can sod 4 months following application, or if sodded first wait 2 months after rooting before spraying. Use up to 6 fluid ounces per acre on common bermudagrass, centipedegrass and St. Augustinegrass and 10 fluid ounces per acre on hybrid bermudagrass, zoysiagrass and bahiagrass established 16 months in areas such as golf course roughs and fairways, residential and commercial turf, sod farms, athletic fields, parks and cemeteries. 10 fluid ounces per acre needed for annual sedge and kyllinga species control. Don’t exceed 18.5 fluid ounces per acre per year. Do not vertical mow 1 month before or after application. Irrigate within 2 days of treatment for maximum benefit. Check label for split or multiple application rates and timings. Delay overseeding 10 months if 4.5 to 6 fluid ounces used and 12 months if 6 to 9 fluid ounces used. For sod production, only apply to bermudagrass, zoysiagrass or bahiagrass. Apply if 80% ribbon coverage and before 4 months prior to harvest. Wait 6 month after treatment if sodding bare ground. Apply to actively growing sod established for 3 months. Use on same warm season turf species established at least 16 months and sites as above. Do not exceed 400 pounds product per year. Allow a 15 feet buffer from cool season turf areas. Do not apply upslope from cool season turf.
metolachlor, MOA 15 (7.62 EC) (Pennant Magnum) 0.96 fl oz 2.6 pt 2.48
Precaution and Remarks: Apply to established bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, bahiagrass, and zoysiagrass. Can apply up to 4.2 pints per acre per year to same area used for commercial sod production.​
napropamide, MOA 15 (50 DF) (Devrinol 50 DF) 1.5 to 2.2 oz 4 to 6 lb 2 to 3
Precaution and Remarks: Use in established bahiagrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, and tall fescue.​
oryzalin, MOA 3 (4 AS, 4L) (various brands) 1.5 fl oz 2 qt 2
Precaution and Remarks: Use on established bahiagrass, centipedegrass, tall fescue, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass, and bermudagrass except greens and tees. A total of 3 quart per acre may be used if application is split by applying 1.5 quarts per acre followed by 1.5 quarts per acre 8 to 10 weeks later. Follow label directions. Do not apply in the spring or summer to tall fescue reseeded the previous fall.​
oryzalin, MOA 3 (85 WDG) (Surflan WDG) 0.64 to 0.88 oz 1.75 to 2.4 lb 1.4875 to 2.04
Precaution and Remarks: Observe same turf tolerances and tall fescue precautions as above. Successful preemergence activity should occur if activated by 0.5 inch of water within 21 days of application. Apply 2.4 pounds per acre as a single application or 1.75 pounds per acre in sequential applications spaced 12 weeks apart.​
oxadiazon, MOA 14 (2 G) (various brands) 2.3 to 4.6 lb 100 to 200 lb 2 to 4
Precaution and Remarks: Use in established perennial bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, bentgrass, bermudagrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass, and St. Augustinegrass. Red fescue is not tolerant. Do not apply to dichondra, centipedegrass, putting greens or tees, or to newly seeded areas. Do not apply to bentgrass mowed at less than 3/8 inch. Do not apply to wet turf. Rainfall or irrigation after application will improve weed control activity. May be applied when sprigging bermudagrass and zoysiagrass. Do not apply to home lawns.​
oxadiazon, MOA 14 (50 WP) (various brands) 1.5 to 2.2 oz 4 to 6 lb 2 to 3
Precaution and Remarks: Use in dormant, established bermudagrass, St. Augustinegrass, and zoysiagrass in fairways and parks. Should be applied at least 2 to 3 weeks before greenup of turf. May be applied when sprigging bermudagrass and zoysiagrass. Do not use on home lawns.​
oxadiazon, MOA 14 (3.17 SC) (various brands) 1.85 to 2.8 fl oz 2.52 to 3.81 qt 2 to 3
Precaution and Remarks: Use in dormant, established bermudagrass, St. Augustinegrass, and zoysiagrass in fairways and parks. May apply 2 lb a.i. per acre when sprigging bermudagrass. Apply at least 2 to 3 weeks before greenup of turf. Do not use on home lawns.
[oxadiazon + prodiamine], MOA 14 + 3 (1.2 G) (various brands) 4.5 lb 200 lb 2 + 0.4
Precaution and Remarks: Use on turf, golf courses (excluding putting greens) of established bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, St. Augustinegrass, ryegrass, centipedegrass, bentgrass, bluegrass, and tall fescue. Contains 38% N. Apply to dry foliage.​
pendimethalin, MOA 3 (various brands) 2 G 1.72 to 3.44 lb 75 to 150 lb 1.5 to 3
0.86 G 2.67 to 5.34 lb 116 to 232 lb 1 to 2
1.29 G 2.67 lb 116 lb 1.5
Precaution and Remarks: Use on established bahiagrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, fine fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, and zoysiagrass. Do not use on winter-overseeded grasses. Wait 4 months after treatment to seed or sod. Do not apply to newly seeded turf until after the 4th mowing. Do not apply to newly sprigged turf until 5 months establishment.​
pendimethalin, MOA 3 (3.8 CS) (various brands) 1.15 to 2.3 fl oz 3.1 to 6.3 pt 1.5 to 3
Precaution and Remarks: Use on noncropland as well as established nonresidential and residential turf areas mowed at least 4 times consisting of bahiagrass, bermudagrass, buffalograss, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, bentgrass, established Poa annua (0.5 inch height or taller), fine fescue, and tall fescue. Do not use on bentgrass or Poa annua greens and tees. If lower rate is applied initially, repeat in 6-8 weeks for extended control. Do not reseed or overseed into treated turfgrass for 3 months, or sprig turfgrass for 5 months following application. Do not exceed 4.2 pints per acre on residential and sod farm turfgrass.
[pendimethalin + dimethemamid], MOA 3 + 15 (1.75 G) 2.3 to 4.6 lb 100 to 200 1.75 to 3.5
Precaution and Remarks: Use on residential, commercial, recreational, sod farm and golf course turf, excluding greens. Tolerant turf species include bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, seashore paspalum and zoysiagrass. For extended control, make sequential applications within 5 to 8 weeks not to exceed 400 pounds per acre. Irrigate within 24 hours of application for optimum control. Following application, wait 3 months to overseed, reseed or sprig. If sprigged first, wait 2 months for root establishment to treat. On new sod, mow at least twice before application. On new seedlings, mow at least 4 times before application. Wait 2 weeks after aerification or verticutting before applying.​
prodiamine, MOA 3 (various brands) 65 WDG 0.185 to 0.83 oz 0.5 to 2.3 lb 0.325 to 1.5
4 FL 0.23 to 1.1 fl oz 0.625 to 3 pt 0.3125 to 1.5
Precaution and Remarks: May be used on established bahiagrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysia, tall fescue, creeping red fescue, perennial bluegrass and ryegrass, and creeping bentgrass. Do not apply to greens. May apply when sprigging or plugging bermudagrass, up to 0.8 pound product per acre.​
prodiamine, MOA 3 (0.5 G) (various brands) 1.5 to 6.9 lb 64 to 300 lb 0.32 to 1.5
Precautions and Remarks: See precautions for prodiamine 65 WG and 4 FL above except may be used on established turf only. Do not apply more than 150 pounds per acre per application. Do not make more than two applications per calendar year. Wait at least 60 days after initial application before making a second application. Prodiamine is coated on a 32-3-12 dry fertilizer carrier.
siduron, MOA 7 (50 WP) (Tupersan) 7.3 oz 20 lb 10
Precaution and Remarks: Use only on bluegrass, fescue, perennial ryegrass, and certain bentgrasses (check label). Can be used at the rate of 8 pounds of formulation when seeding bentgrass, bluegrass, fescue, and ryegrass. Can also be used in newly sprigged or established zoysia. Do not use on bermudagrass, carpetgrass, or centipedegrass.​
dimethenamid, MOA 15 (6 L) (Tower) 0.48 to 0.73 fl oz 21 to 32 fl oz 1 to 1.5
Precaution and Remarks: Use on residential, commercial, recreational, sod farm and golf course turf, excluding greens. Apply 21 ounces to established bentgrass, bluegrass species, fescue species and perennial ryegrass maintained at 0.5 inch cut, but expect yellowing and stand reduction. Apply 32 ounces to bahiagrass, bermudagrass species, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, seashore paspalum and zoysiagrass. For extended control, make sequential applications within 5 to 8 weeks at 32 fluid ounces per acre rate. Irrigate within 24 hours of application for optimum control. Following application, wait 6 weeks to overseed or reseed, wait 2 months to sprig, wait until 2 mowings for new sod, and wait until 4 mowings for newly seeded turf.
Preemergence and Postemergence Control
Herbicide and Formulation Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft Amount of Formulation per Acre Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre
mesotrione, MOA 27 (4 SC) (Tenacity) 0.092 to 0.183 fl oz 4 to 8 fl oz 0.125 to 0.25
Precaution and Remarks: Use on residential turf, golf courses (not greens) and sod farms for pre- and postemergence weed control. Tolerant turfgrasses include St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass, tall fescue, fine fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, and perennial ryegrass. Add a nonionic surfactant and repeat application after 2 to 3 weeks for improved postemergence control. Tank mix with prodiamine 65 WG for extended preemergence grassy weed control. Can be applied at seeding to all tolerant grasses except fine fescue. After turf germination, wait 4 weeks or until turf has been mowed twice before making a postemergence application. Also controls henbit, chickweed, dandelion, white clover, Florida betony, Florida pusley, ground ivy, oxalis, wild violet, creeping bentgrass, and yellow nutsedge.​
[sulfentrazone + prodiamine], MOA 14 + 3 (4 SC) (Echelon) 0.184 to 0.826 fl oz 0.5 to 2.25 pt 0.25 to 1.125
Precaution and Remarks: For use in residential and institutional lawns, athletic fields, sod farms, golf course fairways and roughs, roadsides, utility right-of-ways, railways, and industrial areas. Apply to turf following a second mowing if a good root system has been established. Apply up to 12 fluid ounces per acre to bentgrass at 0.5 inch or higher, fine fescue, and perennial ryegrass. Apply 18 to 24 fluid ounces per acre to perennial bluegrass, tall fescue, and all warm season grasses except St. Augustinegrass (do not apply) and bermudagrass (apply 18 to 36 fluid ounces per acre). For sod production, apply 6 months after establishment, and do not harvest within 3 months. Do not apply with adjuvants or surfactants. [Sulfentrazone + prodiamine should not be applied to cool-season turf with N-containing fertilizers unless some short-term discoloration is tolerable.​
Postemergence Control
Herbicide and Formulation Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft Amount of Formulation per Acre Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre
fenoxaprop, MOA 1 (0.57 EC) (Acclaim Extra) 0.3 to 0.9 fl oz 0.8 to 2.4 pt 0.057 to 0.174
Precaution and Remarks: Use only on perennial ryegrass, fine fescue, tall fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, and zoysiagrass. Reduced vigor or discoloration can occur. Rate depends upon leaf number or tillers of grass weeds and turf tolerance. Check label. A second application may be applied after 14 days.​
0.08 fl oz 3.5 fl oz 0.016
Precaution and Remarks: Apply only to established Penncross bentgrass maintained at a minimum cutting height of at least 0.25 inch. Bentgrass should be established for one growing season. Do not apply to greens. Applications should be made at a minimum of 21-day intervals, beginning in the spring when grassy weeds first emerge and are not larger than two-leaf. Repeat applications throughout the summer as new infestations of one- to two-leaf grassy weeds occur. See label for other restrictions.​
metribuzin, MOA 5 (75 DF) (various brands) 0.12 to 0.24 oz 0.33 to 0.67 lb 0.25 to 0.5
Precaution and Remarks: Recommended for application by commercial applicators only on established bermudagrass turf (such as parks, athletic fields, golf course fairways, cemeteries, and sod farms) that has a mowing height of 0.5 inch or greater. Apply when turf is vigorously growing and not under stress. Repeat if necessary in 7 to 10 days. Do not make more than two applications per season. Do not apply to greens, tees, or aprons.​
sethoxydim, MOA 1 (1 EC) (various brands) 0.8 to 1.38 fl oz 2.25 to 3.75 pt 0.28 to 0.47
Precaution and Remarks: Use in seedling and established centipedegrass and fine fescues. Apply 2.25 pint to grasses up to 6 inches and 3.75 pints to grasses up to 12 inches if turf is tolerant. Does not control yellow and purple nutsedge, annual bluegrass or broadleaf weeds. Apply no sooner than 3 weeks after spring greenup of centipedegrass. Apply before crabgrass becomes extensively tillered. Delay all treatments until newly planted centipedegrass has 3 inches of new stolon growth. Do not mow within 7 days before or after application. Two applications 3 weeks apart will suppress bahiagrass. Additives or adjuvants not required.​
Postemergence Control or Suppression of Summer Weeds Such as Crabgrass Species
[thiencarbazone-methyl + foramsulfuron + halosulfuron], MOA 14 + 2 + 2 (60.5 WG) (Tribute Total) 0.0735 oz 3.2 oz 0.121
Precaution and Remarks: Apply to well-established residential and commercial bermudagrass and zoysiagrass (Emerald, Meyer, Zeon) lawns, golf courses (excluding greens), athletic fields, sod farms, roadsides, parks, cemeteries and recreational areas. Do not exceed 3.2 ounces per acre per application or 6.4 ounces per acre yearly. Use 0.25 to 0.5% by volume nonionic surfactant or 0.5 to 1% by volume methylated seed oil. After application, wait 12 weeks to overseed ryegrass or bermudagrass. Wait 1 month after bermudagrass seedling emergence and 2 weeks after sprigging or sodding bermudagrass before treating. Temporary stunting and yellowing may last up to 2 weeks but turf will recover. Crabgrass and goosegrass are controlled up to 2 tiller stage.​
diclofop-methyl, MOA 1 (3 EC) (Illoxan) 0.75 to 1 fl oz 32 to 43 fl oz 0.75 to 1
Precaution and Remarks: Apply in established bermudagrass. Rate depends on number of goosegrass leaves from one to four leaves. Check label for specific rates.​
foramsulfuron, MOA 2 (0.19 SC) (Revolver) 0.39 fl oz 17 fl oz 0.025
Precaution and Remarks: For use on bermudagrass and zoysiagrass grown on home lawns, golf courses and sod farms. See precautions listed under annual bluegrass section. For goosegrass control, apply 17 fl ounces per acre on plants up to 2 tillers followed by 17 fluid ounces per acre 2 weeks later.​
sulfentrazone, MOA 14 (4 SC) (Dismiss Turf) 0.275 fl oz 0.75 pt 0.375
Precaution and Remarks: May be applied to home lawns. For use on creeping bentgrass, tall and fine fescue, perennial ryegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, and all warm-season turf species except St. Augustinegrass. See precautions listed under purple and yellow nutsedge section. For goosegrass control, apply 0.75 pint per acre on plants up to 2 tillers.
MSMA, MOA 17 (6 SL, 6.6 SL) (various brands) several concentrations 1.82 to 4.5
Precaution and Remarks: MSMA is only registered for golf course, sod farm, and highway right-of-way use. Bermudagrass, bluegrass and zoysiagrass are tolerant. Injury may result on bentgrass, fescue and also St. Augustinegrass grown for commercial sod production only. Do not use on carpetgrass or centipedegrass. MSMA restrictions: For existing golf courses, spot treat (100 square feet per spot) not to exceed 25% of total acreage. For new courses, make 1 broadcast application per year. For sod farms, make 1 to 2 broadcast applications per year and maintain 25 feet buffer around permanent water bodies.
For highway rights of way, make 2 broadcast applications and maintain 100 feet buffer around permanent water bodies.
MSMA, MOA 17 (6 SL, 6.6 SL) (various brands) + metribuzin, MOA 5 (75 DF) (Sencor) several concentrations
+
0.17 to 0.33 lb
1.5 to 2
+
0.125 to 0.25
Precaution and Remarks: See remarks for MSMA and metribuzin. The combination improves goosegrass control. Should be applied to bermudagrass only.
asulam, MOA 18 (3.34 SL) (Asulox) 1.8 fl oz 5 pt 2
Precaution and Remarks: Use only on St. Augustinegrass and Tifway 419 turf. On golf courses, use only on fairways and roughs.​
topramezone, MOA 27 (2.8 L) (Pylex) 0.023 to 0.034 fl oz 1 to 1.5 fl oz 0.021875 to 0.0328125
Precaution and Remarks: Labeled for broadcast treatment use in residential and athletic field turf, as well as in nonresidential turf sites including sod farms, golf courses (excluding greens and collars), parks, roadsides, cemeteries, and commercial properties. Tolerant turf species include Kentucky bluegrass, tall and fine fescue, perennial ryegrass, and centipedegrass at seeding and then anytime beyond 28 days after seeding. Add crop oil concentrate or methylated seed oil for enhanced control at 0.5 to 1% by volume. Don’t apply greater than 2 fluid ounces per acre per application or 4 fluid ounces per acre per year. Bleaching intensity of susceptible weeds reduced and broadleaf weed spectrum increased if tankmixed with quinclorac, [quinclorac + mecoprop + dicamba] or triclopyr. For suppression of above-listed weeds, add triclopyr at 1 pound ai per acre and make either 2 or 3 applications at 3 to 4 week intervals depending on topramezone rate. Creeping bentgrass is marginally tolerant to topramezone at 0.25 fluid ounces per acre. Test on a small area before large-scale use. Sequential applications may be required to achieve desired level of weed control. For bermudagrass and sheashore paspalum use 0.5 to 0.75 ounces per acre plus MSO at 1.5 pints per acre. Apply only to established bermudagrass and seashore paspalum.​

Species Data

  • SEEDHEAD / FLOWER
  • VERNATION TYPE
    • folded
  • LIGULE TYPE
    • membranous; 0.02 - 0.04 inches (0.6 - 1 mm) long, collar-like, hairy on back, edges sometimes with short hairs
      Figure 8, Figure 9
  • GROWTH SEASON / LIFE CYCLE
    • summer annual weed
  • AURICLE TYPE
    • absent
  • LEAF BLADE TIP SHAPE
  • LEAF BLADE WIDTH
    • 0.2 - 0.4 inches (5 - 10 mm) wide
  • STOLON PRESENCE
    • absent
  • RHIZOME PRESENCE
    • absent
  • COLLAR TYPE
  • SHEATH MARGIN
  • SHEATH TYPE
    • flattened
GoosegrassseedheadFigure 1. Goosegrass seedhead.Goosegrass seedheadFigure 2. Goosegrass seedhead.Goosegrass seedheadFigure 3. Goosegrass seedhead.Goosegrass seedheadFigure 4. Goosegrass seedhead.Goosegrass seedheadFigure 5. Goosegrass seedhead.Goosegrass seedheadFigure 6. Goosegrass seedhead.Goosegrass seedheadFigure 7. Goosegrass seedhead.Goosegrass liguleFigure 8. Goosegrass ligule.Goosegrass liguleFigure 9. Goosegrass ligule.Goosegrass leaf blade tip shapeFigure 10. Goosegrass leaf blade tip shape.Goosegrass leaf blade tip shapeFigure 11. Goosegrass leaf blade tip shape.Goosegrass leaf blade tip shapeFigure 12. Goosegrass leaf blade tip shape.Goosegrass collarFigure 13. Goosegrass collar.Goosegrass collarFigure 14. Goosegrass collar.Goosegrass collarFigure 15. Goosegrass collar.Goosegrass sheath marginFigure 16. Goosegrass sheath margin.Goosegrass sheath marginFigure 17. Goosegrass sheath margin.Goosegrass sheath marginFigure 18. Goosegrass sheath margin.