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Field pansy (Viola rafinesquii)), also called Johnnyjumpup violet, is a winter annual with erect freely branched stems growing 1⁄2 to 5 inches tall. The leaves are borne alternately on the stem with prominent dissected stipules (basal appendages). Flowers are borne on prominent stalks from the upper nodes. Flower petals may be white with blue veins or entirely bluish to bluish-violet. They appear like a miniature common violet flower.
Winter annual broadleaf weeds germinate in the fall or winter and grow during any warm weather, which may occur in the winter, but otherwise remain somewhat dormant during the winter. They resume growth and produce seed in the spring and die as temperatures increase in late spring and early summer. They quickly invade thin turf areas especially where there is good soil moisture. Shade may also encourage growth. Many have a prostrate growth habit and are not affected by mowing. A dense, vigorous turf is the best way to reduce the encroachment of winter annual weeds. First, select adapted turfgrass cultivars for your area and then properly fertilize, mow, and water to encourage dense growth.
|Herbicide and Formulation||Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft||Amount of Formulation per Acre||Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre|
|Preemergence and Postemergence Control|
|mesotrione, MOA 27 (4 SC) (Tenacity)||0.092 to 0.183 fl oz||4 to 8 fl oz||0.125 to 0.25|
|Precaution and Remarks: Use on residential turf, golf courses (not greens) and sod farms for pre- and postemergence weed control. Tolerant turfgrasses include St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass, tall fescue, fine fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, and perennial ryegrass. Add a nonionic surfactant and repeat application after 2 to 3 weeks for improved postemergence control. Tank mix with prodiamine 65 WG for extended preemergence grassy weed control. Can be applied at seeding to all tolerant grasses except fine fescue. After turf germination, wait 4 weeks or until turf has been mowed twice before making a postemergence application. Also controls henbit, chickweed, dandelion, white clover, Florida betony, Florida pusley, ground ivy, oxalis, wild violet, creeping bentgrass, and yellow nutsedge.|
|[sulfentrazone + prodiamine], MOA 14 + 3 (4 SC) (Echelon)||0.184 to 0.826 fl oz||0.5 to 2.25 pt||0.25 to 1.125|
|Precaution and Remarks: For use in residential and institutional lawns, athletic fields, sod farms, golf course fairways and roughs, roadsides, utility right-of-ways, railways, and industrial areas. Apply to turf following a second mowing if a good root system has been established. Apply up to 12 fluid ounces per acre to bentgrass at 0.5 inch or higher, fine fescue, and perennial ryegrass. Apply 18 to 24 fluid ounces per acre to perennial bluegrass, tall fescue, and all warm season grasses except St. Augustinegrass (do not apply) and bermudagrass (apply 18 to 36 fluid ounces per acre). For sod production, apply 6 months after establishment, and do not harvest within 3 months. Do not apply with adjuvants or surfactants. [Sulfentrazone + prodiamine should not be applied to cool-season turf with N-containing fertilizers unless some short-term discoloration is tolerable.|
- GROWTH SEASON / LIFE CYCLE
- winter annual weed
- GROWTH HABIT
- prostrate, spreading or upright
- LEAFLET NUMBER
- LEAF MARGIN
- serrated / toothed
- LEAF HAIRS
- LEAF / LEAFLET SHAPE
- oval / egg-shaped / elliptical
- LEAF WIDTH
- basal - 0.75 to 1.5" (19 - 38 mm); upper leaves 0.5" (13 mm)
- LEAF ARRANGEMENT
- ROOT TYPE
- FLOWER COLOR
- blue / purple; white; yellow