Virginia Buttonweed

Description

Virginia buttonweed is an herbaceous perennial with prostrate or spreading branches. The stems are longitudinally ridged, especially below the nodes, with hairs along the ridges. The leaves are opposite without petioles and rough along the margins. The leaves are slightly thickened, green on the upper surface and light green on the lower surface with both surfaces smooth and slightly folded. The leaves of Virginia buttonweed often take on a mottled-yellow mosaic look due to a virus. The white flowers sometimes have pink streaks in the center and are borne in the leaf axil. Petals are united into a tube.

Cultural Control

Perennial broadleaf turf weeds are capable of living more than two years. They thrive in weak, thin turf; golf fairways and roughs; home lawns; playfields; and industrial grounds. Proper turf maintenance is the key to control of this weed. First, select adapted turfgrass cultivars for your area and then properly fertilize, mow, and water to encourage dense growth.

Chemical Control

Herbicide and Formulation Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft Amount of Formulation per Acre Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre
Preemergence and Postemergence Control
mesotrione, MOA 27 (4 SC) (Tenacity) 0.092 to 0.183 fl oz 4 to 8 fl oz 0.125 to 0.25
Precaution and Remarks: Use on residential turf, golf courses (not greens) and sod farms for pre- and postemergence weed control. Tolerant turfgrasses include St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass, tall fescue, fine fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, and perennial ryegrass. Add a nonionic surfactant and repeat application after 2 to 3 weeks for improved postemergence control. Tank mix with prodiamine 65 WG for extended preemergence grassy weed control. Can be applied at seeding to all tolerant grasses except fine fescue. After turf germination, wait 4 weeks or until turf has been mowed twice before making a postemergence application. Also controls henbit, chickweed, dandelion, white clover, Florida betony, Florida pusley, ground ivy, oxalis, wild violet, creeping bentgrass, and yellow nutsedge.​
[sulfentrazone + prodiamine], MOA 14 + 3 (4 SC) (Echelon) 0.184 to 0.826 fl oz 0.5 to 2.25 pt 0.25 to 1.125
Precaution and Remarks: For use in residential and institutional lawns, athletic fields, sod farms, golf course fairways and roughs, roadsides, utility right-of-ways, railways, and industrial areas. Apply to turf following a second mowing if a good root system has been established. Apply up to 12 fluid ounces per acre to bentgrass at 0.5 inch or higher, fine fescue, and perennial ryegrass. Apply 18 to 24 fluid ounces per acre to perennial bluegrass, tall fescue, and all warm season grasses except St. Augustinegrass (do not apply) and bermudagrass (apply 18 to 36 fluid ounces per acre). For sod production, apply 6 months after establishment, and do not harvest within 3 months. Do not apply with adjuvants or surfactants. [Sulfentrazone + prodiamine should not be applied to cool-season turf with N-containing fertilizers unless some short-term discoloration is tolerable.​
Postemergence Control
[thiencarbazone-methyl + iodosulfuron + dicamba], MOA 14 + 2 + 4 (68 WG) (Celsius WG) 0.057 to 0.113 oz 2.5 to 4.9 oz 0.106 to 0.208
Precaution and Remarks: For use by licensed applicators in residential and commercial lawns, golf courses (excluding greens), sports fields, parks, recreational areas, roadsides, school grounds, and sod farms. Provides up to 60 days residual control. Use on bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, centipedegrass, and St Augustinegrass. Apply maximum 7.4 ounces per acre per season. Safe to use at high temperatures. Ryegrass can be overseeded 2 weeks after application. Apply 30 days prior to seeding bermudagrass or zoysiagrass. Wait 2 weeks after bermudagrass seedlling emergence or sprigging operation before applying. For zoysiagrass, wait 3 weeks after seedling emergence before applying. A nonionic surfactant or methylated seed oil at 0.25% v/v is required for optimum control.​
[thiencarbazone-methyl + foramsulfuron + halosulfuron], MOA 14 + 2 + 2 (60.5 WG) (Tribute Total) 0.0735 oz 3.2 oz 0.121
Precaution and Remarks: Apply to well-established residential and commercial bermudagrass and zoysiagrass (Emerald, Meyer, Zeon) lawns, golf courses (excluding greens), athletic fields, sod farms, roadsides, parks, cemeteries and recreational areas. Do not exceed 3.2 ounces per acre per application or 6.4 ounces per acre yearly. Use 0.25 to 0.5% by volume nonionic surfactant or 0.5 to 1% by volume methylated seed oil. After application, wait 12 weeks to overseed ryegrass or bermudagrass. Wait 1 month after bermudagrass seedling emergence and 2 weeks after sprigging or sodding bermudagrass before treating. Temporary stunting and yellowing may last up to 2 weeks but turf will recover. Crabgrass and goosegrass are controlled up to 2 tiller stage.​
[2,4-D amine + fluroxypyr + dicamba], MOA 4 + 4 + 4 (4 SL) (various brands) 0.36 to 1.1 fl oz 1 to 3 pt 0.5 to 1.5
Precaution and Remarks: Use on perennial bluegrass and ryegrass, tall fescue, creeping bentgrass (excluding greens and tees), bermudagrass species, bahiagrass, zoysiagrass, and St. Augustinegrass in residential, industrial, and institutional lawns, parks, cemeteries, athletic fields, golf courses, and sod farms. Use on St. Augustinegrass sod farms only. Apply 1 to 2 pints per acre on creeping bentgrass and 1.5 to 1.8 pints per acre on warm season turf grown for sod. Apply 2 to 3 pints per acre to all other turf areas. For non-turf areas, rate can be increased to 2 to 5 pinst per acre. Application can be made to grass seedlings after second mowing and to newly sodded, sprigged, or plugged grasses 3 to 4 weeks after operations.​
[MCPA amine + fluroxypyr ester + dicamba], MOA 4 + 4 + 4 (4.8 SL) (Change Up) 0.73 to 1.1 fl oz 2 to 3 pt 1.2 to 1.8
Precaution and Remarks: Same turf tolerances and uses as [2,4-D amine + fluroxypyr + dicamba] in addition to centipedegrass. Only spot treat St. Augustinegrass when temperature exceeds 80 degrees F. Do not apply more than two applications per year totaling 3 pints per acre. For non-turf areas, rate can be increased to 2 to 5 pints per acre. Application can be made to grass seedlings after second mowing and to newly sodded, sprigged, or plugged grasses 3 to 4 weeks after operations. Sod farm rates include 1.25 pints per acre for creeping bentgrass, 2 to 3 pints per acre for all other cool season grasses listed on label and 1.5 to 1.8 pints per acre for all warm season grasses listed on label.​

Species Data

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