Green Foxtail

Description

Green foxtail is a bright green clumping annual weed common in turf and pasture areas. The seedheads can be distinguished from those of other foxtails because they are smaller and greener with long hairs. Yellow foxtail has a wider seedhead, with shorter bristles. In addition, yellow foxtail has hairs on the leaf margins and ligule. Giant foxtail has the largest seedhead of the three and this seedhead is drooping.

Cultural Control

These grasses occur infrequently in North Carolina in highly maintained turf but can be common in utility turf, such as along roadsides. Maintaining a dense, healthy turf year round by proper mowing and fertilization helps prevent encroachment and weed establishment.

Chemical Control

Herbicide and Formulation Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft Amount of Formulation per Acre Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre
Preemergence Control
benefin, MOA 3 (2.5 G) (various brands) 2.75 lb 120 lb 3
Precaution and Remarks: Safe to apply to all established turfgrass except bentgrass. Do not apply in the spring to lawns seeded the previous fall or to golf course greens. Do not use on newly sprigged turfgrasses.​
[benefin + trifluralin], MOA 3 + 3 (0.86 G) (Fertilizer with Team Pro 0.86%) 8 lb 349 lb 3
Precaution and Remarks: Use on lawns and golf course fairways of bahiagrass, bentgrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, fescue, perennial ryegrass, St. Augustinegrass, and zoysiagrass.​
bensulide, MOA 8 (4 EC, 8.5 G, 12.5 G) varies because several concentrations available 10
Precaution and Remarks: May be applied to all established turfgrass and dichondra, residential lawns, and golf course greens and tees. Limit 2 applications per year to greens and tees. Do not use on newly sprigged turfgrasses. Not effective for goosegrass control.​
[bensulide + oxadiazon], MOA 8 + 14 (6.56 G) (Goosegrass/Crabgrass Control) 2.6 lb 116 lb 6 + 1.5
Precaution and Remarks: Controls crabgrass and goosegrass. Use on established bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, tall fescue, bentgrass, perennial bluegrass, or perennial ryegrass fairways and tees. Use also on bermudagrass and bentgrass greens.​
dithiopyr, MOA 4 (various brands) 2 EW, 2 L 0.75 fl oz 1 qt 0.5
40 WP 0.46 oz 20 oz 0.5
Precaution and Remarks: May be applied to most all cool-season and warm-season turfgrasses except colonial bentgrass. See label for injury precautions regarding certain varieties. Also controls pre-tillered crabgrass. Split applications recommended in southern and coastal regions of the state (0.25 pound a.i. at 8-week intervals). Timely irrigation or rainfall is critical for activation.​
indaziflam, MOA 21 (various brands) 20 WSP 0.057 to 0.115 oz 2.5 to 5 oz 0.03125 to 0.0625
0.622F 0.069 to 0.23 fl oz 3 to 10 fl oz 0.01458 to 0.0486
0.0224 G 2.9 to 4.6 lb 125 to 200 lb 0.028 to 0.045
Precaution and Remarks: Use only on established turf (1 year after seeding) such as bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, seashore paspalum, and bahiagrass. Labeled for commercial and residential lawns, golf courses (roughs, tees, fairways), sod farms, athletic fields, parks and cemeteries. Use a minimum of 2.5 ounces per acre for crabgrass, annual bluegrass and broadleaf weed control and a minimum of 3.75 ounces per acre for goosegrass, annual sedge and kyllinga species control. Apply up to 2.5 ounces per acre on centipedegrass and St. Augustinegrass due to tolerance concerns. For all other tolerant turfgrasses, do not exceed 5 ounces per acre in a single application or 7.1 ounces per acre within a calendar year. There is an 8 month overseeding restriction following a 2.5 ounces per acre application. Can sprig 2 months following application, or if sprigged first, wait 4 months before spraying. Can sod 4 months following application, or if sodded first wait 2 months after rooting before spraying. Use up to 6 fluid ounces per acre on common bermudagrass, centipedegrass and St. Augustinegrass and 10 fluid ounces per acre on hybrid bermudagrass, zoysiagrass and bahiagrass established 16 months in areas such as golf course roughs and fairways, residential and commercial turf, sod farms, athletic fields, parks and cemeteries. 10 fluid ounces per acre needed for annual sedge and kyllinga species control. Don’t exceed 18.5 fluid ounces per acre per year. Do not vertical mow 1 month before or after application. Irrigate within 2 days of treatment for maximum benefit. Check label for split or multiple application rates and timings. Delay overseeding 10 months if 4.5 to 6 fluid ounces used and 12 months if 6 to 9 fluid ounces used. For sod production, only apply to bermudagrass, zoysiagrass or bahiagrass. Apply if 80% ribbon coverage and before 4 months prior to harvest. Wait 6 month after treatment if sodding bare ground. Apply to actively growing sod established for 3 months. Use on same warm season turf species established at least 16 months and sites as above. Do not exceed 400 pounds product per year. Allow a 15 feet buffer from cool season turf areas. Do not apply upslope from cool season turf.
metolachlor, MOA 15 (7.62 EC) (Pennant Magnum) 0.96 fl oz 2.6 pt 2.48
Precaution and Remarks: Apply to established bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, bahiagrass, and zoysiagrass. Can apply up to 4.2 pints per acre per year to same area used for commercial sod production.​
napropamide, MOA 15 (50 DF) (Devrinol 50 DF) 1.5 to 2.2 oz 4 to 6 lb 2 to 3
Precaution and Remarks: Use in established bahiagrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, and tall fescue.​
oryzalin, MOA 3 (4 AS, 4 L) (various brands) 1.5 fl oz 2 qt 2
Precaution and Remarks: Use on established bahiagrass, centipedegrass, tall fescue, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass, and bermudagrass except greens and tees. A total of 3 quart per acre may be used if application is split by applying 1.5 quarts per acre followed by 1.5 quarts per acre 8 to 10 weeks later. Follow label directions. Do not apply in the spring or summer to tall fescue reseeded the previous fall.​
oryzalin, MOA 3 (85 WDG) (Surflan WDG) 0.64 to 0.88 oz 1.75 to 2.4 lb 1.4875 to 2.04
Precaution and Remarks: Observe same turf tolerances and tall fescue precautions as above. Successful preemergence activity should occur if activated by 0.5 inch of water within 21 days of application. Apply 2.4 pounds per acre as a single application or 1.75 pounds per acre in sequential applications spaced 12 weeks apart.​
oxadiazon, MOA 14 (2 G) (various brands) 2.3 to 4.6 lb 100 to 200 lb 2 to 4
Precaution and Remarks: Use in established perennial bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, bentgrass, bermudagrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass, and St. Augustinegrass. Red fescue is not tolerant. Do not apply to dichondra, centipedegrass, putting greens or tees, or to newly seeded areas. Do not apply to bentgrass mowed at less than 3/8 inch. Do not apply to wet turf. Rainfall or irrigation after application will improve weed control activity. May be applied when sprigging bermudagrass and zoysiagrass. Do not apply to home lawns.​
oxadiazon, MOA 14 (50 WP) (various brands) 1.5 to 2.2 oz 4 to 6 lb 2 to 3
Precaution and Remarks: Use in dormant, established bermudagrass, St. Augustinegrass, and zoysiagrass in fairways and parks. May apply 2 lb a.i. per acre when sprigging bermudagrass. Apply at least 2 to 3 weeks before greenup of turf. Do not use on home lawns.
oxadiazon, MOA 14 (3.17 SC) (various brands) 1.85 to 2.8 fl oz 2.52 to 3.81 qt 2 to 3
Precaution and Remarks: Use in dormant, established bermudagrass, St. Augustinegrass, and zoysiagrass in fairways and parks. May apply 2 lb a.i. per acre when sprigging bermudagrass. Make application at least 2 to 3 weeks before greenup of turf. Do not use on home lawns.
[oxadiazon + prodiamine], MOA 14 + 3 (1.2 G) (various brands) 4.5 lb 200 lb 2 + 0.4
Precaution and Remarks: Use on turf, golf courses (excluding putting greens) of established bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, St. Augustinegrass, ryegrass, centipedegrass, bentgrass, bluegrass, and tall fescue. Contains 38% N. Apply to dry foliage.​
pendimethalin, MOA 3 (various brands) 2 G 1.72 to 3.44 lb 75 to 150 lb 1.5 to 3
0.86 G 2.67 to 5.34 lb 116 to 232 lb 1 to 2
1.29 G 2.67 lb 116 lb 1.5
Precaution and Remarks: Use on established bahiagrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, fine fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, and zoysiagrass. Do not use on winter-overseeded grasses. Wait 4 months after treatment to seed or sod. Do not apply to newly seeded turf until after the 4th mowing. Do not apply to newly sprigged turf until 5 months establishment.​
pendimethalin, MOA 3 (3.8 CS) (various brands) 1.15 to 2.3 fl oz 3.1 to 6.3 pt 1.5 to 3
Precaution and Remarks: Use on noncropland as well as established nonresidential and residential turf areas mowed at least 4 times consisting of bahiagrass, bermudagrass, buffalograss, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, bentgrass, established Poa annua (0.5 inch height or taller), fine fescue, and tall fescue. Do not use on bentgrass or Poa annua greens and tees. If lower rate is applied initially, repeat in 6-8 weeks for extended control. Do not reseed or overseed into treated turfgrass for 3 months, or sprig turfgrass for 5 months following application. Do not exceed 4.2 pints per acre on residential and sod farm turfgrass.​
[pendimethalin + dimethemamid], MOA 3 + 15 (1.75 G) 2.3 to 4.6 lb 100 to 200 1.75 to 3.5
Precaution and Remarks: Use on residential, commercial, recreational, sod farm and golf course turf, excluding greens. Tolerant turf species include bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, seashore paspalum and zoysiagrass. For extended control, make sequential applications within 5 to 8 weeks not to exceed 400 pounds per acre. Irrigate within 24 hours of application for optimum control. Following application, wait 3 months to overseed, reseed or sprig. If sprigged first, wait 2 months for root establishment to treat. On new sod, mow at least twice before application. On new seedlings, mow at least 4 times before application. Wait 2 weeks after aerification or verticutting before applying.​
prodiamine, MOA 3 (65 WG) (various brands) 65 WDG 0.185 to 0.83 oz 0.5 to 2.3 lb 0.325 to 1.5
4 FL 0.23 to 1.1 fl oz 0.625 to 3 pt 0.3125 to 1.5
Precaution and Remarks: May be used on established bahiagrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysia, tall fescue, creeping red fescue, perennial bluegrass and ryegrass, and creeping bentgrass. Do not apply to greens. May apply when sprigging or plugging bermudagrass, up to 0.8 pound product per acre.​
prodiamine, MOA 3 (0.5 G) (various brands) 1.5 to 6.9 lb 64 to 300 lb 0.32 to 1.5
Precaution and Remarks: See precautions for prodiamine 65 WG and 4 FL above except may be used on established turf only. Do not apply more than 150 pounds per acre per application. Do not make more than two applications per calendar year. Wait at least 60 days after initial application before making a second application. Prodiamine is coated on a 32-3-12 dry fertilizer carrier.​
siduron, MOA 7 (50 WP) (Tupersan) 7.3 oz 20 lb 10
Precaution and Remarks: Use only on bluegrass, fescue, perennial ryegrass, and certain bentgrasses (check label). Can be used at the rate of 8 pounds of formulation when seeding bentgrass, bluegrass, fescue, and ryegrass. Can also be used in newly sprigged or established zoysia. Do not use on bermudagrass, carpetgrass, or centipedegrass.​
Postemergence Control
Herbicide and Formulation Amount of Formulation per 1,000 sq ft Amount of Formulation per Acre Pounds Active Ingredient per Acre
quinclorac, MOA (27 + 4) (various brands) 75 DF 0.367 oz 1 lb 0.75
1.5 SL 1.45 fl oz 2 qt 0.75
Precaution and Remarks: For use in residential and nonresidential turf that is established or newly seeded, overseeded, or sprigged. Refer to label for specific varieties. Apply to common and hybrid bermudagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, annual bluegrass, buffalograss, tall fescue, annual and perennial ryegrass, creeping bentgrass, and zoysiagrass. Can also be applied to fine fescue but must be in a blend. Some discoloration of hybrid bermudagrass, creeping bentgrass or fine fescue may occur. Do not apply to bahiagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, or dichondra. Do not use on golf course greens or collars. The addition of methylated seed oil (1.5 pints per acre or 0.55 ounces per 1,000 square feet) or a crop oil concentrate (2 pint per acre or 0.73 ounces per 1,000 square feet) is required for control. Application to weeds under stress will result in poor control. Irrigation 24 hours prior to application is recommended if drought conditions exist. Some ornamental plants are sensitive to quinclorac. See label for further precautions.​
[quinclorac + sulfentrazone + 2,4-D amine + dicamba], MOA (27 + 4) + 14 + 4 + 4 (1.79 L) (Q4 Plus) 1.8 to 3 fl oz 5 to 8 pt 1.12 to 1.79
Precaution and Remarks: For use in fully dormant bermudagrass as well as actively growing bermudagrass after spring greenup but use only 5 to 7 pints per acre. Also labeled in fully dormant zoysiagrass s well as cool-season turf including annual bluegrass and ryegrass, perennial bluegrass and ryegrass, and fescue species. Do not apply to bahiagrass, bentgrass (creeping, Seaside, Colonial), centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, carpetgrass, and golf course greens, tees, and collars. May be applied to home lawns. Apply to seedling grasses after second or third mowing, or 28 days after emergence. Wait 3 to 4 weeks after sodding, sprigging, or plugging operations to apply. Wait 4 weeks after application to seed.​
[quinclorac + mecoprop + dicamba], MOA (27 + 4) + 4 + 4 (2.45 SL) (Onetime) 0.5 to 1.45 fl oz 0.68 to 2 qt 0.4165 to 1.225
Precaution and Remarks: For use in warm- and cool-season residential and non-residential turf, including but not limited to commercial property, parks, roadsides, schools, athletic fields, cemeteries, and golf courses. May be applied to species of bermudagrass, bluegrass, fescue, and ryegrass as well as creeping bentgrass, seashore paspalum, and zoysiagrass. Use with methylated seed oil at 1.5 pints per acre. Allow 28 days of seedling or sprig growth before application. If treating first, allow 28 days before seeding or sprigging. Do not apply to golf course collars or greens or to turf grown for sod. Use low rate in 2 split applications when treating creeping bentgrass.​
[carfentrazone + quinclorac], MOA 14 + (27 + 4) (75 WG) (SquareOne) 0.184 to 0.413 oz 8 to 18 oz 0.35 to 0.79
Precaution and Remarks: Can use up to 12 ounces per acre 7 days after emergence from seed or sod installment on bluegrass and fescue species and perennial ryegrass; 18 ounces per acre can be used 7 days after seed, sod or sprig operations on bermudagrass species, centipedegrass and seashore paspalum. Wait 14 days after emergence for zoysiagrass. May apply to residential, commercial, and institutional lawns, athletic fields, sod farms, and golf course fairways and roughs. Adjuvants not required but may help on mature weeds.​
[sulfentrazone + quinclorac], MOA 14 + (27 + 4) (75 WG) (Solitare) 0.367 to 0.735 oz 1 to 2 lb 0.75 to 1.5
Precaution and Remarks: Use up to 21 ounces per acre on well-established tall fescue, Kentucky bluegrass and perennial ryegrass; up to 32 ounces per acre on well-established bermudagrass, centipedegrass, zoysiagrass and seashore paspalum. May be applied to residential, commercial, and institutional lawns, athletic fields, sod farms, and golf course fairways and roughs. After treatment, wait at least 1 month before reseeding, overseeding (use slit seeder for best results), or sprigging. Wait at least 3 months for sod establishment and do not spray within 3 months of harvest. Controls goosegrass in the 1 to 4 leaf stage. Yellow nutsedge and kyllinga species are also controlled. Do not apply with a spray adjuvant.​
[thiencarbazone-methyl + iodosulfuron-methyl + dicamba], MOA 14 + 2 + 4 (68 WG) (Celsius WG) 0.057 to 0.113 oz 2.5 to 4.9 oz 0.106 to 0.208
Precaution and Remarks: For use by licensed applicators in residential and commercial lawns, golf courses (excluding greens), sports fields, parks, recreational areas, roadsides, school grounds, and sod farms. Provides up to 60 days residual control. Use on bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, centipedegrass, and St Augustinegrass. Apply maximum 7.4 ounces per acre per season. Safe to use at high temperatures. Ryegrass can be overseeded 2 weeks after application. Apply 30 days prior to seeding bermudagrass or zoysiagrass. Wait 2 weeks after bermudagrass seedlling emergence or sprigging operation before applying. For zoysiagrass, wait 3 weeks after seedling emergence before applying. A nonionic surfactant or methylated seed oil at 0.25% v/v is required for optimum control. ​
topramezone, MOA 27 (2.8 L) (Pylex) 0.023 to 0.034 fl oz 1 to 1.5 fl oz 0.021875 to 0.0328125
Precaution and Remarks: Labeled for broadcast treatment use in residential and athletic field turf, as well as in nonresidential turf sites including sod farms, golf courses (excluding greens and collars), parks, roadsides, cemeteries, and commercial properties. Tolerant turf species include Kentucky bluegrass, tall and fine fescue, perennial ryegrass, and centipedegrass at seeding and then anytime beyond 28 days after seeding. Add crop oil concentrate or methylated seed oil for enhanced control at 0.5 to 1% by volume. Don’t apply greater than 2 fluid ounces per acre per application or 4 fluid ounces per acre per year. Bleaching intensity of susceptible weeds reduced and broadleaf weed spectrum increased if tankmixed with quinclorac, [quinclorac + mecoprop + dicamba] or triclopyr. For suppression of above-listed weeds, add triclopyr at 1 pound ai per acre and make either 2 or 3 applications at 3 to 4 week intervals depending on topramezone rate. Creeping bentgrass is marginally tolerant to topramezone at 0.25 fluid ounces per acre. Test on a small area before large-scale use. Sequential applications may be required to achieve desired level of weed control. For bermudagrass and sheashore paspalum use 0.5 to 0.75 ounces per acre plus MSO at 1.5 pints per acre. Apply only to established bermudagrass and seashore paspalum.​

Species Data

  • SEEDHEAD / FLOWER
  • VERNATION TYPE
    • leaves rolled in the bud
  • LIGULE TYPE
    • dense fringe of hairs, 0.03 - 0.04 inches (0.8 - 1 mm) long
      Figure 6
  • GROWTH SEASON / LIFE CYCLE
    • summer annual weed
  • AURICLE TYPE
    • absent
  • LEAF BLADE TIP SHAPE
    • sharp-pointed; flat, not hairy, slightly rough
      Figure 7
  • LEAF BLADE WIDTH
    • up to 0.5 inches (12 mm) wide
  • STOLON PRESENCE
    • absent
  • RHIZOME PRESENCE
    • absent
  • COLLAR TYPE
  • SHEATH MARGIN
    • split with overlapping margins; edges hairy
  • SHEATH TYPE
Green foxtail seedheadFigure 1. Green foxtail seedhead.Green foxtail seedheadFigure 2. Green foxtail seedhead.Green foxtail seedheadFigure 3. Green foxtail seedhead.Green foxtail seedheadFigure 4. Green foxtail seedhead.Green foxtail seedheadFigure 5. Green foxtail seedhead.Green foxtail liguleFigure 6. Green foxtail ligule.Green foxtail leaf blade widthFigure 7. Green foxtail leaf blade width.Green foxtail collarFigure 8. Green foxtail collar.Green foxtail collarFigure 9. Green foxtail collar.Green foxtailFigure 10. Green foxtail.Green foxtailFigure 11. Green foxtail.